January 12 – A nationalistic coalition of merchants, religious leaders and intellectuals in Persia forces the shah to grant a constitution, and establish a national assembly, the Majlis.
January 16–April 7 – The Algeciras Conference convenes, to resolve the First Moroccan Crisis between France and Germany.
January 22 – The SS Valencia strikes a reef off Vancouver Island, Canada, killing over 100 (officially 136) in the ensuing disaster.
February 10 – HMS Dreadnought is launched, sparking a naval race between Britain and Germany.
March 10 – Courrières mine disaster – An explosion in a coal mine in France kills 1,060.
March 10 – The London Underground’s Baker Street and Waterloo Railway opens.
April 18 – The San Francisco Earthquake (estimated magnitude 7.8) on the San Andreas Fault destroys much of San Francisco, California, killing at least 3,000
April 23 – In the Russian Empire, the Fundamental Laws are announced at the first state Duma.
June 7 – Cunard liner RMS Lusitania is launched in Glasgow, as the world’s largest ship.
June 26 – The first Grand Prix is held in Le Mans, France.
August 4 – The first Imperial German Navy submarine, U-1, is launched.
August 16 – A magnitude 8.2 earthquake in Valparaíso, Chile leaves approximately 20,000 dead.
October 23 – An aeroplane of Alberto Santos-Dumont takes off at Bagatelle in France, and flies 60 meters (200 feet). This is the first officially recorded powered flight in Europe.