Elsewhere in 1920

Radicals Awaiting Deportation

January 2 – The first Red Scare in the United States – 4025 suspected communists and anarchists are arrested and held without trial in several cities

January 7 - In the Russian Civil War, the forces of Russian White Admiral Alexander Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk - the Great Siberian Ice March ensues

January 7 – In the Russian Civil War, the forces of Russian White Admiral Alexander Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk – the Great Siberian Ice March ensues

January 16 - Prohibition in the United States begins, with the Eighteenth Amendment to the Constitution coming into effect

January 16 – Prohibition in the United States begins, with the Eighteenth Amendment to the Constitution coming into effect

FEBRUA~1

February 2 – The Tartu Peace Treaty is signed, ending the Estonian War of Independence and recognizing the independence of both the Republic of Estonia and the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic

February 7 – Admiral Kolchak and Viktor Pepelyayev are executed by firing squad near Irkutsk

February 7 – Admiral Kolchak and Viktor Pepelyayev are executed by firing squad near Irkutsk

February 17 – A woman named Anna Anderson tries to commit suicide in Berlin, and is taken to a mental hospital, where she claims she is Grand Duchess Anastasia of Russia

February 17 – A woman named Anna Anderson tries to commit suicide in Berlin, and is taken to a mental hospital, where she claims she is Grand Duchess Anastasia of Russia

FEBRUA~3

February 24 – Adolf Hitler presents his National Socialist Program in Munich to the German Workers’ Party (Deutsche Arbeiterpartei), which renames itself as the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei)

March 7 – The Syrian National Congress proclaims Syria independent, with Faisal I of Iraq as king

March 7 – The Syrian National Congress proclaims Syria independent, with Faisal I of Iraq as king

March 10 - The world's first peaceful establishment of a social democratic government takes place in Sweden, as Hjalmar Branting takes over as Prime Minister

March 10 – The world’s first peaceful establishment of a social democratic government takes place in Sweden, as Hjalmar Branting takes over as Prime Minister

Berlin, Kapp-Putsch, Putschisten

March 13–17 – Wolfgang Kapp and Walther von Lüttwitz’s Kapp Putsch (an attempted coup in Germany) briefly ousts the Weimar Republic government from Berlin, but fails due to public resistance and a general strike

March 15 – The Ruhr Red Army, a communist army 60,000 men strong, is formed in Germany

March 15 – The Ruhr Red Army, a communist army 60,000 men strong, is formed in Germany

March 15–16 – Constantinople is occupied by British Empire forces, acting for the Allied Powers against the Turkish National Movement

March 15–16 – Constantinople is occupied by British Empire forces, acting for the Allied Powers against the Turkish National Movement

March 19 – The United States Senate refuses to ratify the Treaty of Versailles

March 19 – The United States Senate refuses to ratify the Treaty of Versailles

March 25 – British recruits to the Royal Irish Constabulary begin to arrive in Ireland. They become known from their improvised uniforms as the 'Black and Tans'

March 25 – British recruits to the Royal Irish Constabulary begin to arrive in Ireland. They become known from their improvised uniforms as the ‘Black and Tans’

April 4 – Violence erupts between Arab and Jewish residents in Jerusalem - 9 are killed, 216 injured

April 4 – Violence erupts between Arab and Jewish residents in Jerusalem – 9 are killed, 216 injured

April 20 - The 1920 Summer Olympics open in Antwerp, Belgium. The Olympic symbols of five interlocking rings and the associated flag are first displayed at the games

April 20 – The 1920 Summer Olympics open in Antwerp, Belgium. The Olympic symbols of five interlocking rings and the associated flag are first displayed at the games

April 23 – The Grand National Assembly of Turkey is founded by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, in Ankara. It denounces the government of Sultan Mehmed VI, and announces a temporary constitution

April 23 – The Grand National Assembly of Turkey is founded by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, in Ankara. It denounces the government of Sultan Mehmed VI, and announces a temporary constitution

May 2 – The first game of Negro National League baseball is played in Indianapolis

May 2 – The first game of Negro National League baseball is played in Indianapolis

May 16 - Over 30,000 people attend the Canonization of Joan of Arc in Rome

May 16 – Over 30,000 people attend the Canonization of Joan of Arc in Rome

May 20 – President Venustiano Carranza of Mexico arrives in San Antonio Tlaxcalantongo, where he is shot and killed by the troops of Rodolfo Herrero

May 20 – President Venustiano Carranza of Mexico arrives in San Antonio Tlaxcalantongo, where he is shot and killed by the troops of Rodolfo Herrero

June 4 – With the Treaty of Trianon, peace is restored between the Allied Powers and Hungary, which loses 72% of its territory

June 4 – With the Treaty of Trianon, peace is restored between the Allied Powers and Hungary, which loses 72% of its territory

June 22 – In the Greek Summer Offensive, Greece attacks Turkish troops

June 22 – In the Greek Summer Offensive, Greece attacks Turkish troops

July 19 – The Second Congress of the Communist International begins in Saint Petersburg and Moscow

July 19 – The Second Congress of the Communist International begins in Saint Petersburg and Moscow

July 24 – The French defeat the Syrian army at the Battle of Maysalun, occupy Damascus, and depose Faisal I of Syria as king

July 24 – The French defeat the Syrian army at the Battle of Maysalun, occupy Damascus, and depose Faisal I of Syria as king

August 10 – Ottoman Sultan Mehmed VI's representatives sign the Treaty of Sèvres with the Allied Powers, confirming arrangements for the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire

August 10 – Ottoman Sultan Mehmed VI’s representatives sign the Treaty of Sèvres with the Allied Powers, confirming arrangements for the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire

August 11 – Bolshevik Russia recognizes independent Latvia

August 11 – Bolshevik Russia recognizes independent Latvia

August 19–25 – The Poles in Upper Silesia rise up against the Germans.

August 19–25 – The Poles in Upper Silesia rise up against the Germans.

August 20 – The first commercial radio station in the United States, 8MK, begins operations in Detroit

August 20 – The first commercial radio station in the United States, 8MK, begins operations in Detroit

August 26 – The Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution is passed, guaranteeing women's suffrage

August 26 – The Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution is passed, guaranteeing women’s suffrage

September 16 – A bomb in a horse wagon explodes in front of the J. P. Morgan building in New York City, killing 38 and injuring 400

September 16 – A bomb in a horse wagon explodes in front of the J. P. Morgan building in New York City, killing 38 and injuring 400

October 9 – In the Polish–Lithuanian War, Polish troops take Vilnius

October 9 – In the Polish–Lithuanian War, Polish troops take Vilnius

November 2 - In the US presidential election, Republican Warren G. Harding defeats Democrat James M. Cox and Socialist Eugene V. Debs

November 2 – In the US presidential election, Republican Warren G. Harding defeats Democrat James M. Cox and Socialist Eugene V. Debs

November 13 – The White Army's last units and civilian refugees are evacuated from the Crimea on board 126 ships

November 13 – The White Army’s last units and civilian refugees are evacuated from the Crimea on board 126 ships

November 15 – In Geneva, the first assembly of the League of Nations is held

November 15 – In Geneva, the first assembly of the League of Nations is held

NOVEMB~2

November 21 – The Irish Republican Army shoot dead 14 British undercover agents in Dublin. Later that day in retaliation, the Royal Irish Constabulary open fire on a crowd at a Gaelic Football match, killing 14

December 1 – The Mexican Revolution ends with a new regime coming to power, which couples with the end of the Old West

December 1 – The Mexican Revolution ends with a new regime coming to power, which couples with the end of the Old West

December 11 – British forces set fire to 5 acres of the centre of Cork, Ireland, including the City Hall, in reprisal attacks, after a British auxiliary is killed in a guerilla ambush

December 11 – British forces set fire to 5 acres of the centre of Cork, Ireland, including the City Hall, in reprisal attacks, after a British auxiliary is killed in a guerilla ambush

December 16 - An 8.6 Richter scale Haiyuan earthquake causes a landslide in Gansu Province, China, killing 180,000

December 16 – An 8.6 Richter scale Haiyuan earthquake causes a landslide in Gansu Province, China, killing 180,000

Ïëàêàò "Ïëàí ÃÎÝËÐÎ"

December 22 – The 8th Congress of Soviets of the Russian SFSR adopts the GOELRO plan, the major plan of the economical development of the country

Elsewhere in 1919

January 1 - HMY Iolaire sinks off the coast of the Hebrides, 201 people, mostly servicemen returning home to Lewis and Harris, are killed.

January 1 – HMY Iolaire sinks off the coast of the Hebrides, 201 people, mostly servicemen returning home to Lewis and Harris, are killed.

January 1 - The Czechoslovak Legions occupy the Pressburg (now Bratislava), enforcing its incorporation into the new republic of Czechoslovakia.

January 1 – The Czechoslovak Legions occupy the Pressburg (now Bratislava), enforcing its incorporation into the new republic of Czechoslovakia.

January 3 – The Faisal–Weizmann Agreement is signed by Emir Faisal and Zionist leader Chaim Weizmann, for Arab–Jewish cooperation in the development of Jewish and Palestinann homelands

January 3 – The Faisal–Weizmann Agreement is signed by Emir Faisal and Zionist leader Chaim Weizmann, for Arab–Jewish cooperation in the development of Jewish and Palestinann homelands

January 5 - A communist uprising is attempted by the Spartacist League in Berlin

January 5 – A communist uprising is attempted by the Spartacist League in Berlin

January 5 - The German Workers' Party, predecessor of the Nazi Party, is formed by the merger of The Committee of Independent Workmen with The Political Workers' Circle.

January 5 – The German Workers’ Party, predecessor of the Nazi Party, is formed by the merger of The Committee of Independent Workmen with The Political Workers’ Circle.

January 6 – Theodore Roosevelt, 26th President of the United States, dies in his sleep at the age of 60

January 6 – Theodore Roosevelt, 26th President of the United States, dies in his sleep at the age of 60

January 7 - The Tragic Week in Argentina, an anarchist uprising in Buenos Aires, begins, it is later suppressed by official forces

January 7 – The Tragic Week in Argentina, an anarchist uprising in Buenos Aires, begins, it is later suppressed by official forces

January 15 - A wave of molasses released from an exploding storage tank sweeps through Boston, Massachusetts, killing 33 and injuring 150.

January 15 – A wave of molasses released from an exploding storage tank sweeps through Boston, Massachusetts, killing 33 and injuring 150.

January 15 - Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht are murdered, following the Spartacist uprising.

January 15 – Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht are murdered, following the Spartacist uprising.

January 16 - The Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, authorizing Prohibition, is ratified.

January 16 – The Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, authorizing Prohibition, is ratified.

January 18 - The Paris Peace Conference opens in France, with delegates from 27 nations attending for meetings at the Palace of Versailles.

January 18 – The Paris Peace Conference opens in France, with delegates from 27 nations attending for meetings at the Palace of Versailles.

January 31 – Battle of George Square - The British Army is called in to deal with riots, during negotiations over working hours in Glasgow, Scotland.

January 31 – Battle of George Square – The British Army is called in to deal with riots, during negotiations over working hours in Glasgow, Scotland.

February 5 - United Artists (UA) is incorporated by D.W. Griffith, Charlie Chaplin, Mary Pickford and Douglas Fairbanks.

February 5 – United Artists (UA) is incorporated by D.W. Griffith, Charlie Chaplin, Mary Pickford and Douglas Fairbanks.

Friedrich Ebert

February 11 – Friedrich Ebert is elected the first President of Germany (Reichspräsident), by the Weimar National Assembly.

February 14 – The Polish–Soviet War begins, with the Battle of Bereza Kartuska.

February 14 – The Polish–Soviet War begins, with the Battle of Bereza Kartuska.

February 24 - Four days after supressing an uprising, the Estonian government celebrate their first independence day

February 24 – Four days after supressing an uprising, the Estonian government celebrate their first independence day

March 1 – The March 1st Movement against Japanese colonial rule in Korea is formed.

March 1 – The March 1st Movement against Japanese colonial rule in Korea is formed.

April 5 – The Pinsk massacre in Poland - 35 Jews are killed without trial, after being accused of Bolshevism.

April 5 – The Pinsk massacre in Poland – 35 Jews are killed without trial, after being accused of Bolshevism.

April 10 – Mexican Revolution leader Emiliano Zapata is ambushed and shot dead in Morelos.

April 10 – Mexican Revolution leader Emiliano Zapata is ambushed and shot dead in Morelos.

April 13 - The Amritsar Massacre - British and Gurkha troops massacre 379 Sikhs at Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar, in the Punjab.

April 13 – The Amritsar Massacre – British and Gurkha troops massacre 379 Sikhs at Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar, in the Punjab.

May 4 - The League of Red Cross Societies is formed in Paris.

May 4 – The League of Red Cross Societies is formed in Paris.

May 4 - The May Fourth Movement erupts in China as a result of the decision at the Paris Peace Conference to transfer former German concessions in Jiaozhou Bay to Japan.

May 4 – The May Fourth Movement erupts in China as a result of the decision at the Paris Peace Conference to transfer former German concessions in Jiaozhou Bay to Japan rather than return sovereign authority to China.

May 6 – The Third Anglo-Afghan War begins.

May 6 – The Third Anglo-Afghan War begins – after a stalemate, Britain concede and settle on pre-war boundaries.

May 19 - Mustafa Kemal Atatürk lands at Samsun on the Anatolian Black Sea coast, marking the start of the Turkish War of Independence.

May 19 – Mustafa Kemal Atatürk lands at Samsun on the Anatolian Black Sea coast, marking the start of the Turkish War of Independence.

June 21 - Admiral Ludwig von Reuter scuttles the German fleet interned at Scapa Flow, Scotland

June 21 – Admiral Ludwig von Reuter scuttles the German fleet interned at Scapa Flow, Scotland

June 25 – In the Russian Civil War, The White Volunteer Army capture Kharkiv, while Red Army forces take Perm.

June 25 – In the Russian Civil War, The White Volunteer Army capture Kharkiv, while Red Army forces take Perm.

June 28 - The Treaty of Versailles is signed, formally ending World War I.

June 28 – The Treaty of Versailles is signed, formally ending World War I.

July 20 – The Red Army captures the city of Ekaterinburg in the Ural mountains from the White rule of Admiral Alexander Kolchak.

July 20 – The Red Army captures the city of Ekaterinburg in the Ural mountains from the White rule of Admiral Alexander Kolchak.

July 21 – The dirigible Wingfoot Air Express catches fire over downtown Chicago. Two passengers, one aircrewman and ten people on the ground are killed.

July 21 – The dirigible Wingfoot Air Express catches fire over downtown Chicago. Two passengers, one aircrewman and ten people on the ground are killed.

July 27 – The Chicago Race Riot of 1919 begins when a white man throws stones at a group of four black teens on a raft.

July 27 – The Chicago Race Riot of 1919 begins when a white man throws stones at a group of four black teens on a raft.

August 4 – The Romanian army occupies Budapest.

August 4 – The Romanian army occupies Budapest.

September 10 – The Treaty of Saint-Germain is signed, ending World War I with Austria-Hungary and declaring that the latter's empire is to be dissolved

September 10 – The Treaty of Saint-Germain is signed, ending World War I with Austria-Hungary and declaring that the latter’s empire is to be dissolved

September 12 – Gabriele D'Annunzio, with his entourage, marches into Fiume and convinces Italian troops to join him.

September 12 – Gabriele D’Annunzio, with his entourage, marches into Fiume and convinces Italian troops to join him.

October 2 – President of the United States Woodrow Wilson suffers a serious stroke, rendering him an invalid for the remainder of his life.

October 2 – President of the United States Woodrow Wilson suffers a serious stroke, rendering him an invalid for the remainder of his life.

November 9 – Felix the Cat debuts in Feline Follies.

November 9 – Felix the Cat debuts in Feline Follies.

November 11 - In The Russian Civil War, The Northwestern Army of General Nikolai Yudenich retreats to Estonia and is disarmed.

November 11 – In The Russian Civil War, The Northwestern Army of General Nikolai Yudenich retreats to Estonia and is disarmed.

November 30 – Health officials declare the global 'Spanish' flu pandemic has ceased.

November 30 – Health officials declare the global ‘Spanish’ flu pandemic has ceased.

Nancy Astor

December 1 – American-born Nancy Astor becomes the first woman to take her seat in the UK House of Commons, having become the second to be elected on November 28.

December 4 – The French Opera House in New Orleans, Louisiana is destroyed by fire.

December 4 – The French Opera House in New Orleans, Louisiana is destroyed by fire.

December 21 – Following the first 'Red Scare', The United States deports 249 people, including Emma Goldman, to Russia on the USAT Buford.

December 21 – Following the first ‘Red Scare’, The United States deports 249 people, including Emma Goldman, to Russia on the USAT Buford.

December 26 – American baseball player Babe Ruth is traded by the Boston Red Sox to the New York Yankees for $125,000, the largest sum ever paid for a player at this time, a deal made public at t

December 26 – American baseball player Babe Ruth is traded by the Boston Red Sox to the New York Yankees for $125,000, the largest sum ever paid for a player at this time.

Elsewhere in 1918

January 8 – Woodrow Wilson delivers his Fourteen Points speech

January 8 – Woodrow Wilson delivers his Fourteen Points speech

January 27 – The Finnish Civil War begins with the Battle of Kämärä

January 27 – The Finnish Civil War begins with the Battle of Kämärä

February 1 – Austrian sailors in the Gulf of Cattaro, led by two Czech Socialists, mutiny

February 1 – Austrian sailors in the Gulf of Cattaro, led by two Czech Socialists, mutiny

February 6 – The Representation of the People Act gives most women over 30 the vote in the UK

February 6 – The Representation of the People Act gives most women over 30 the vote in the UK

February 16 – The Council of Lithuania adopts the Act of Independence of Lithuania, declaring Lithuania's independence from Russia

February 16 – The Council of Lithuania adopts the Act of Independence of Lithuania, declaring Lithuania’s independence from Russia

February 19 – The Capture of Jericho by the Egyptian Expeditionary Force begins the British occupation of the Jordan Valley

February 19 – The Capture of Jericho by the Egyptian Expeditionary Force begins the British occupation of the Jordan Valley

February 19-25 – The Imperial Russian Navy evacuates Tallinn through thick ice, over the Gulf of Finland

February 19-25 – The Imperial Russian Navy evacuates Tallinn through thick ice, over the Gulf of Finland

February 24 – Estonia declares its independence from Russia, after seven centuries of foreign rule. German forces capture Tallinn the following day

February 24 – Estonia declares its independence from Russia, after seven centuries of foreign rule. German forces capture Tallinn the following day

March 3 – The Central Powers and Russia sign the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, ending Russia's involvement in WW1

March 3 – The Central Powers and Russia sign the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, ending Russia’s involvement in WW1

March 8 – The Battle of Tell 'Asur is launched by units of the British Army's Egyptian Expeditionary Force against Ottoman defences

March 8 – The Battle of Tell ‘Asur is launched by units of the British Army’s Egyptian Expeditionary Force against Ottoman defences

March 21 – The Spring Offensive by the German Army begins with Operation Michael - there are nearly 20,000 British Army dead on the first day

March 21 – The Spring Offensive by the German Army begins with Operation Michael – there are nearly 20,000 British Army dead on the first day

MARCH2~2

March 23 – In London at the Wood Green Empire, Chung Ling Soo (William E. Robinson, U.S.-born magician) dies during his trick, where he is supposed to catch two bullets when one of them perforates his lung

March 23 - The giant German cannon, the 'Paris Gun', begins to shell Paris from 114 km away

March 23 – The giant German cannon, the ‘Paris Gun’, begins to shell Paris from 114 km away

March 26 – Dr. Marie Stopes publishes her influential book Married Love in the U.K

March 26 – Dr. Marie Stopes publishes her influential book Married Love in the U.K

March 27 – The First Battle of Amman is launched by units of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force

March 27 – The First Battle of Amman is launched by units of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force

March 30 – Bolshevik and Armenian Revolutionary Federation forces suppress a Muslim revolt in Baku, Azerbaijan, resulting in up to 30,000 deaths

March 30 – Bolshevik and Armenian Revolutionary Federation forces suppress a Muslim revolt in Baku, Azerbaijan, resulting in up to 30,000 deaths

April 5 – Sālote succeeds as Queen of Tonga - she will remain on the throne until her death in 1965

April 5 – Sālote succeeds as Queen of Tonga – she will remain on the throne until her death in 1965

April 21 – Manfred von Richthofen, 'The Red Baron', dies in combat at Morlancourt Ridge near the Somme River

April 21 – Manfred von Richthofen, ‘The Red Baron’, dies in combat at Morlancourt Ridge near the Somme River

April 23 – A general strike is held in Ireland against conscription

April 23 – A general strike is held in Ireland against conscription

April 23 – The British Navy raids Zeebrugge and Ostend, attempting to seal off the German U-boat bases there

April 23 – The British Navy raids Zeebrugge and Ostend, attempting to seal off the German U-boat bases there

April 28 – Gavrilo Princip, assassin of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, dies in Terezin, Austria-Hungary, after three years in prison

April 28 – Gavrilo Princip, assassin of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, dies in Terezin, Austria-Hungary, after three years in prison

May 11 – The Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus is officially established

May 11 – The Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus is officially established

May 26 – Georgia declares its independence as the Democratic Republic of Georgia.

May 26 – Georgia declares its independence as the Democratic Republic of Georgia.

May 28 – Armenia and Azerbaijan declare their independence as the First Republic of Armenia and the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic

May 28 – Armenia and Azerbaijan declare their independence as the First Republic of Armenia and the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic

May 29 – The Battle of Sardarabad concludes with defending Armenian forces victorious over the Ottomans.

May 29 – The Battle of Sardarabad concludes with defending Armenian forces victorious over the Ottomans.

June – The 'Spanish 'flu' becomes pandemic. Over 30 million people die in the following 6 months.

June – The ‘Spanish ‘flu’ becomes pandemic. Over 30 million people die in the following 6 months.

June 1 – The Battle of Belleau Wood begins.

June 1 – The Battle of Belleau Wood begins.

Szent István, Sinkendes Linienschiff

June 10 – Austro-Hungarian dreadnought battleship SMS Szent István is sunk by two Italian MAS motor torpedo boats off the Dalmatian coast.

June 12 - Grand Duke Michael of Russia is murdered, becoming the first of the Romanovs to be murdered by the Bolsheviks.

June 12 – Grand Duke Michael of Russia is killed, becoming the first of the Romanovs to be executed by the Bolsheviks.

July 3 – The Siberian Intervention is launched by the Allies, to extract the Czechoslovak Legion from the Russian Civil War

July 3 – The Siberian Intervention is launched by the Allies, to extract the Czechoslovak Legion from the Russian Civil War

July 4 – Mehmed VI succeeds as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire on the death of his half-brother Mehmed V

July 4 – Mehmed VI succeeds as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire on the death of his half-brother Mehmed V

July 9 – In Nashville, Tennessee, an inbound local train collides with an outbound express, killing 101.

July 9 – In Nashville, Tennessee, an inbound local train collides with an outbound express, killing 101.

July 12 – Japanese battleship Kawachi blows up off Tokuyama, killing at least 621

July 12 – Japanese battleship Kawachi blows up off Tokuyama, killing at least 621

July 15 – The Second Battle of the Marne begins near the River Marne, with a German attack

July 15 – The Second Battle of the Marne begins near the River Marne, with a German attack

JULY17~1

July 17 – By order of the Bolshevik Party, Tsar Nicholas II, his wife Alexandra Feodorovna, their children, Olga, Tatiana, Maria, Anastasia, Alexei and retainers are shot at the Ipatiev House, in Ekaterinburg, Russia.

August 2 – British anti-Bolshevik forces occupy Arkhangelsk in North Russia.

August 2 – British anti-Bolshevik forces occupy Arkhangelsk in North Russia.

AUGUST~3

August 8 – British, Canadian and Australian troops begin a string of almost continuous victories, the ‘Hundred Days Offensive’, with an 8-mile push through the German front lines at the Battle of Amiens, taking 12,000 prisoners.

August 21 – The Second Battle of the Somme begins

August 21 – The Second Battle of the Somme begins

August 27 – U.S. Army forces skirmish against Mexican Carrancistas and their German advisors at Nogales, Arizona, in the only battle of WWI fought on United States soil.

August 27 – U.S. Army forces skirmish against Mexican Carrancistas and their German advisors at Nogales, Arizona, in the only battle of WWI fought on United States soil.

SEPTEM~3

September 3 – The Bolshevik government of Russia publishes the first official announcement of the Red Terror, a period of repression against political opponents, as an ‘Appeal to the Working Class’ in the newspaper Izvestia

September 4 –The Battle of Mont Saint-Quentin concludes with the Australian Corps breaking the German line.

September 4 –The Battle of Mont Saint-Quentin concludes with the Australian Corps breaking the German line.

September 15–18 – At The Battle of Dobro Pole, The Allied Army of the Orient defeats Bulgarian defenders.

September 15–18 – At The Battle of Dobro Pole, The Allied Army of the Orient defeats Bulgarian defenders.

SEE480~1

September 19 – The British Army launches the Battle of Megiddo, an attack in the Judaean Mountains, which breaks the Ottoman front line stretching from the Mediterranean coast to the Judaean Mountains.

September 26 – The Meuse-Argonne Offensive begins, the largest and bloodiest operation of the war for the American Expeditionary Forces.

September 26 – The Meuse-Argonne Offensive begins, the largest and bloodiest operation of the war for the American Expeditionary Forces.

September 27 – The Battle of the Canal du Nord, launched by British and Empire forces, continues the advance towards the Hindenburg Line.

September 27 – The Battle of the Canal du Nord, launched by British and Empire forces, continues the advance towards the Hindenburg Line.

September 29 – The Battle of St Quentin Canal begins - Allied forces advance towards the Hindenburg Line

September 29 – The Battle of St Quentin Canal begins – Allied forces advance towards the Hindenburg Line

Berlin, Deutelmoser, Max v. Baden, v. Radowitz

October 3 – Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany appoints Max von Baden Chancellor of Germany.

October 7 – The Regency Council declares Polish independence from the German Empire, and demands that Germany cede the Polish provinces of Poznań, Upper Silesia and Polish Pomerania

October 7 – The Regency Council declares Polish independence from the German Empire, and demands that Germany cede the Polish provinces of Poznań, Upper Silesia and Polish Pomerania

October 8–10 – British and Canadian troops take Cambrai from the Germans and the First and Third British Armies break through the Hindenburg Line

October 8–10 – British and Canadian troops take Cambrai from the Germans and the First and Third British Armies break through the Hindenburg Line

October 18 – The Washington Declaration proclaims the independent Czechoslovak Republic

October 18 – The Washington Declaration proclaims the independent Czechoslovak Republic

October 31 – The Hungarian government terminates the personal union with Austria, officially dissolving the Austro-Hungarian Empire

October 31 – The Hungarian government terminates the personal union with Austria, officially dissolving the Austro-Hungarian Empire

November 1 - The Polish–Ukrainian War is inaugurated, by the proclamation of the West Ukrainian People's Republic in Galicia, with a capital at Lwów.

November 1 – The Polish–Ukrainian War is inaugurated, by the proclamation of the West Ukrainian People’s Republic in Galicia, with a capital at Lwów.

November 1 - The worst rapid transit accident in world history occurs under the intersection of Malbone Street and Flatbush Avenue, in Brooklyn, New York City, with at least 93 dead

November 1 – The worst rapid transit accident in world history occurs under the intersection of Malbone Street and Flatbush Avenue, in Brooklyn, New York City, with at least 93 dead

November 3 - Austria-Hungary enters an armistice with the Allies, at the Villa Giusti in Padua

November 3 – Austria-Hungary enters an armistice with the Allies, at the Villa Giusti in Padua

November 9 - Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany abdicates and chooses to live in exile in the Netherlands. The German Republic is proclaimed by Philipp Scheidemann in Berlin, on the Reichstag balcony

November 9 – Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany abdicates and chooses to live in exile in the Netherlands. The German Republic is proclaimed by Philipp Scheidemann in Berlin, on the Reichstag balcony

November 11 – Emperor Charles I of Austria gives up his absolute power, but does not abdicate

November 11 – Emperor Charles I of Austria gives up his absolute power, but does not abdicate

NOCB75~1

November 11 – Germany signs an armistice agreement with the Allies, between 5:12 AM and 5:20 AM, in Marshal Foch’s railroad car, in the Forest of Compiègne in France. It becomes official on the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month

November 21 – Polish troops, volunteers and freed criminals massacre at least 320 Ukrainian Christians and Jews in Lwów, Galicia

November 21 – Polish troops, volunteers and freed criminals massacre at least 320 Ukrainian Christians and Jews in Lwów, Galicia

November 28 – The Red Army invades Estonia, starting the Estonian War of Independence

November 28 – The Red Army invades Estonia, starting the Estonian War of Independence

December 1 - Following the March 27 incorporation of Bessarabia and Bucovina, Transylvania unites with the Kingdom of Romania

December 1 – Following the March 27 incorporation of Bessarabia and Bucovina, Transylvania unites with the Kingdom of Romania

December 1 - Iceland regains independence, but remains in personal union with the King of Denmark, who also becomes the King of Iceland until 1944

December 1 – Iceland regains independence, but remains in personal union with the King of Denmark, who also becomes the King of Iceland until 1944

December 28 – Sinn Féin wins wins 73 of the 105 seats in the Irish General Election. Countess Constance Markievicz, while detained in Holloway Prison (London), becomes the first woman ele

December 28 – Sinn Féin wins wins 73 of the 105 seats in the Irish General Election. Countess Constance Markievicz, while detained in Holloway Prison (London), becomes the first woman elected to (but does not take her seat in) the British House of Commons.

Elsewhere in 1917

January 9 – At the Battle of Rafa the last substantial Ottoman Army garrison on the Sinai Peninsula is captured by the Egyptian Expeditionary Force

January 9 – At the Battle of Rafa, the last substantial Ottoman Army garrison on the Sinai Peninsula is captured by the Egyptian Expeditionary Force

January 11 – Unknown saboteurs set off the Kingsland Explosion, one of the events leading to United States involvement in WWI

January 11 – Unknown saboteurs set off the Kingsland Explosion, one of the events leading to United States involvement in WWI

January 19 – A blast at a munitions factory in London kills 73 and injures over 400

January 19 – A blast at a munitions factory in London kills 73 and injures over 400

January 25 – British armed merchantman SS Laurentic is sunk by mines off Lough Swilly (Ireland), with the loss of 354 of the 475 aboard

January 25 – British armed merchantman SS Laurentic is sunk by mines off Lough Swilly (Ireland), with the loss of 354 of the 475 aboard

February 13 - Mata Hari is arrested in Paris for spying

February 13 – Mata Hari is arrested in Paris for spying

February 24 – US ambassador to the UK Walter Hines Page is shown the intercepted Zimmermann Telegram, in which Germany offers to give the American Southwest back to Mexico

February 24 – US ambassador to the UK Walter Hines Page is shown the intercepted Zimmermann Telegram, in which Germany offers to give the American Southwest back to Mexico

March 8 – The February Revolution begins in Russia - Women calling for bread in Petrograd start riots, which spontaneously spread throughout the city

March 8 – The February Revolution begins in Russia – Women calling for bread in Petrograd start riots, which spontaneously spread throughout the city

March 15 – Emperor Nicholas II of Russia abdicates his throne and his son's claims. This is considered to be the end of the Russian Empire, after 196 years

March 15 – Emperor Nicholas II of Russia abdicates his throne and his son’s claims. This is considered to be the end of the Russian Empire, after 196 years

MARCH2~1

March 26 – At the First Battle of Gaza, British Egyptian Expeditionary Force troops virtually encircle the Gaza garrison, but are then ordered to withdraw, leaving the city to the Ottoman defenders

April 6 – The United States declares war on Germany.

April 6 – The United States declares war on Germany.

April 9 – At The Battle of Arras British Empire troops make a significant advance on the Western Front but are unable to achieve a breakthrough.

April 9 – At The Battle of Arras, British Empire troops make a significant advance on the Western Front but are unable to achieve a breakthrough.

APRIL1~1

April 17 – The Egyptian Expeditionary Force begins the Second Battle of Gaza, a frontal attack on Ottoman defenses, which results in 10,000 casualties, and the beginning of the Stalemate in Southern Palestine.

JUNE7T~1

June 7 – The Battle of Messines opens with the British Army detonating 19 ammonal mines under the German lines, killing 10,000 in the deadliest deliberate non-nuclear man-made explosion in history.

July – The first Cottingley Fairies photographs are taken in Yorkshire, England, apparently depicting fairies(a hoax not admitted by the child creators until 1981).

July – The first Cottingley Fairies photographs are taken in Yorkshire, England, apparently depicting fairies (a hoax not admitted by the child creators until 1981).

July 6 - At the Battle of Aqaba Arabian troops, led by T. E. Lawrence, capture Aqaba from the Ottoman Empire.

July 6 – At the Battle of Aqaba, Arabian troops, led by T. E. Lawrence, capture Aqaba from the Ottoman Empire.

July 28 – The Silent Parade is organized by the NAACP in New York City, to protest the East St. Louis riot of July 2, as well as lynchings in Tennessee and Texas

July 28 – The Silent Parade is organized by the NAACP in New York City, to protest the East St. Louis riot of July 2, as well as lynchings in Tennessee and Texas

July 31 – The Battle of Passchendaele - aAllied offensive operations commence in Flanders.

July 31 – The Battle of Passchendaele – Allied offensive operations commence in Flanders.

August 18 – The Great Thessaloniki Fire in Greece destroys 32% of the city, leaving 70,000 homeless.

August 18 – The Great Thessaloniki Fire in Greece destroys 32% of the city, leaving 70,000 homeless.

September 23 – Leon Trotsky is elected Chairman of the Petrograd Soviet.

September 23 – Leon Trotsky is elected Chairman of the Petrograd Soviet.

OCTOBE~1

October 12 – At the First Battle of Passchendaele, Allies fail to take a German defensive position, with the biggest loss of life in a single day for New Zealand, over 800 of whose men are killed, roughly 0.1% of the nation’s population

October 13 – The Miracle of the Sun is reported at Fátima, Portugal.

October 13 – The Miracle of the Sun is reported at Fátima, Portugal.

October 24 - At the Battle of Caporetto Austrian and German forces penetrate Italian lines as far south as the Piave River.

October 24 – At the Battle of Caporetto Austrian and German forces penetrate Italian lines as far south as the Piave River.

October 26 – Brazil declares war against the Central Powers.

October 26 – Brazil declares war against the Central Powers.

OC1041~1

October 31 – At the Battle of Beersheba, the British XX Corps and Desert Mounted Corps (Egyptian Expeditionary Force) attack and capture Beersheba from Ottoman forces, ending the stalemate in Southern Palestine.

November 2 – British Foreign Secretary Arthur Balfour makes the Balfour Declaration, proclaiming British support for the 'establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people'

November 2 – British Foreign Secretary Arthur Balfour makes the Balfour Declaration, proclaiming British support for the “establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people”

November 6 – Second Battle of Passchendaele - After 3 months of fierce fighting, Canadian forces take Passchendaele in Belgium. The battle concludes on November 10

November 6 – Second Battle of Passchendaele – After 3 months of fierce fighting, Canadian forces take Passchendaele in Belgium. The battle concludes on November 10

November 7 - The British Army XXI Corps occupies Gaza, after the Ottoman garrison withdraws.

November 7 – The British Army XXI Corps occupies Gaza, after the Ottoman garrison withdraws.

NOVEMB~2

November 7 – The workers of the Petrograd Soviet in Russia, led by the Bolshevik Party and leader Vladimir Lenin, storm the Winter Palace and successfully destroy the Kerensky Provisional Government.

November 7 - Women win the right to vote in New York State.

November 7 – Women win the right to vote in New York State.

NOVEMB~4

November 13 – Battle of Mughar Ridge – The Egyptian Expeditionary Force attacks retreating Yildirim Army Group forces, resulting in the capture of 10,000 Ottoman prisoners, 100 guns and 50 miles of Palestine territory.

November 15 - 'Night of Terror' in the United States - Influential suffragettes from the Silent Sentinels are deliberately subjected to physical assaults by guards while imprisoned.

November 15 – ‘Night of Terror’ in the United States – Influential suffragettes from the Silent Sentinels are deliberately subjected to physical assaults by guards while imprisoned.

November 15 - The Parliament of Finland passes another 'Sovereignty Act', dissolving Russian sovereignty over Finland and effectively declaring Finland independent.

November 15 – The Parliament of Finland passes another ‘Sovereignty Act’, dissolving Russian sovereignty over Finland and effectively declaring Finland independent.

NO2007~1

November 17 – US Navy destroyers USS Fanning and USS Nicholson capture Imperial German Navy U-boat SM U-58 off the south-west coast of Ireland, the first combat action in which U.S. ships take a submarine (which is then scuttled).

DECEMB~1

December 9 – The British Egyptian Expeditionary Force accepts the surrender of Jerusalem by the mayor, Hussein al-Husayni, following the effective defeat of the Ottoman Empire’s Yildirim Army Group.

Elsewhere in 1916

January 1 – The British Royal Army Medical Corps carries out the first successful blood transfusion, using blood that had been stored and cooled.

January 1 – The British Royal Army Medical Corps carries out the first successful blood transfusion, using blood that had been stored and cooled.

January 10 – In the Erzurum Offensive, Russia inflicts a defeat on the Ottoman Empire.

January 10 – In the Erzurum Offensive, Russia inflicts a defeat on the Ottoman Empire.

January 13 - Ottoman Empire forces defeat the Allied British in the Battle of Wadi.

January 13 – Ottoman Empire forces defeat the Allied British in the Battle of Wadi.

February 11 - Emma Goldman is arrested for lecturing on birth control in the United States.

February 11 – Emma Goldman is arrested for lecturing on birth control in the United States.

February 12 – At The Battle of Salaita Hill, South African and other British Empire troops fail to take a German East African defensive position.

February 12 – At The Battle of Salaita Hill, South African and other British Empire troops fail to take a German East African defensive position.

February 21 – The Battle of Verdun begins in France.

February 21 – The Battle of Verdun begins in France.

March 8 – Pancho Villa leads 500 Mexican raiders in an attack against Columbus, New Mexico, killing 12 U.S. soldiers. A garrison of the U.S. 13th Cavalry Regiment fights back and drives them away.

March 8 – Pancho Villa leads 500 Mexican raiders in an attack against Columbus, New Mexico, killing 12 U.S. soldiers. A garrison of the U.S. 13th Cavalry Regiment fights back and drives them away.

March 24 – French ferry SS Sussex is torpedoed by SM UB-29 in the English Channel, with at least 50 killed, including the composer Enrique Granados.

March 24 – French ferry SS Sussex is torpedoed by SM UB-29 in the English Channel, with at least 50 killed, including the composer Enrique Granados.

April 11 – The Egyptian Expeditionary Force begins the occupation of the Sinai Peninsula.

April 11 – The Egyptian Expeditionary Force begins the occupation of the Sinai Peninsula.

Easter Rising

April 24 – The Easter Rising begins in Ireland. Members of the Irish Republican Brotherhood proclaim an Irish Republic, and the Irish Volunteers and Irish Citizen Army occupy the General Post Office and other buildings in Dublin.

April 27 – The 47th Brigade, 16th (Irish) Division at Hulluch in France is decimated, in one of the most heavily concentrated German gas attacks of the war.

April 27 – The 47th Brigade, 16th (Irish) Division at Hulluch in France is decimated, in one of the most heavily concentrated German gas attacks of the war.

EASTER RISING DUBLIN

April 29 – The Easter Rising ends, as republican commanders issue an order for all companies to surrender.

April 29 – The Siege of Kut ends with the surrender of British forces to the Ottoman Empire, at Kut-al-Amara on the Tigris in Basra Vilayet.

April 29 – The Siege of Kut ends with the surrender of British forces to the Ottoman Empire, at Kut-al-Amara on the Tigris in Basra Vilayet.

May 16 - Britain and France conclude the secret Sykes–Picot Agreement, which is to divide Arab areas of the Ottoman Empire into French and British spheres of influence.

May 16 – Britain and France conclude the secret Sykes–Picot Agreement, which is to divide Arab areas of the Ottoman Empire into French and British spheres of influence.

May 16 - United States Marines invade the Dominican Republic.

May 16 – United States Marines invade the Dominican Republic.

May 31 – The Battle of Jutland, between the British Royal Navy and the Imperial German Navy, the war's only large-scale clash of battleships, begins - the result is inconclusive.

May 31 – The Battle of Jutland, between the British Royal Navy and the Imperial German Navy, the war’s only large-scale clash of battleships, begins – the result is inconclusive.

June 4 – The Brusilov Offensive, the height of Russian operations in the war, begins with their breaking through Austro-Hungarian lines.

June 4 – The Brusilov Offensive, the height of Russian operations in the war, begins with their breaking through Austro-Hungarian lines.

June 5 – HMS Hampshire sinks, having hit a mine off the Orkney Islands, Scotland, with Lord Kitchener aboard.

June 5 – HMS Hampshire sinks, having hit a mine off the Orkney Islands, Scotland, with Lord Kitchener aboard.

June 10 - The Arab Revolt against the Ottoman Empire is formally declared by Hussein bin Ali, Sharif of Mecca.

June 10 – The Arab Revolt against the Ottoman Empire is formally declared by Hussein bin Ali, Sharif of Mecca.

July 1 - On the first day of The Battle of The Somme around 30,000 British, French and German soldiers are killed

July 1 – On the first day of The Battle of The Somme around 30,000 British, French and German soldiers are killed

July 15 – Battle of Delville Wood – 766 men from the South African Brigade are killed, in South Africa's biggest loss during the First World War.

July 15 – Battle of Delville Wood – 766 men from the South African Brigade are killed, in South Africa’s biggest loss during the First World War.

July 29 – In Ontario, Canada, a lightning strike ignites a forest fire that destroys the towns of Cochrane and Matheson, killing 233.

July 29 – In Ontario, Canada, a lightning strike ignites a forest fire that destroys the towns of Cochrane and Matheson, killing 233.

July 30 – German agents cause the Black Tom explosion in Jersey City, New Jersey, an act of sabotage destroying an ammunition depot and killing at least 7 people.

July 30 – German agents cause the Black Tom explosion in Jersey City, New Jersey, an act of sabotage destroying an ammunition depot and killing at least 7 people.

August 5 – At the Battle of Romani British Imperial troops secure victory over a joint Ottoman-German force.

August 5 – At the Battle of Romani British Imperial troops secure victory over a joint Ottoman-German force.

Front Of The Piggly Wiggly Store

September 6 – The first true self-service grocery store, Piggly Wiggly, is founded in Memphis, Tennessee, by Clarence Saunders.

September 11 – A mechanical failure causes the central span of the Quebec Bridge to crash into the Saint Lawrence River for the second time, killing 13 workers.

September 11 – A mechanical failure causes the central span of the Quebec Bridge to crash into the Saint Lawrence River for the second time, killing 13 workers.

September 13 – Mary, a circus elephant, is hanged in the town of Erwin, Tennessee for killing her handler, Walter 'Red' Eldridge.

September 13 – Mary, a circus elephant, is hanged in the town of Erwin, Tennessee for killing her handler, Walter ‘Red’ Eldridge.

September 15 – Battle of Flers–Courcelette - significant for the first use of the tank in warfare and for the debut of the Canadian and New Zealand Divisions in The Somme.

September 15 – Battle of Flers–Courcelette – significant for the first use of the tank in warfare and for the debut of the Canadian and New Zealand Divisions in The Somme.

September 27 – Iyasu V of Ethiopia is deposed in a palace coup, in favour of his aunt Zewditu.

September 27 – Iyasu V of Ethiopia is deposed in a palace coup, in favour of his aunt Zewditu.

October 21 – Friedrich Adler shoots and kills Count Karl von Stürgkh, Minister-President of Austria.

October 21 – Friedrich Adler shoots and kills Count Karl von Stürgkh, Minister-President of Austria.

November 5 - An armed confrontation in Everett, Washington, between local authorities and members of the Industrial Workers of the World results in seven deaths.

November 5 – An armed confrontation in Everett, Washington, between local authorities and members of the Industrial Workers of the World results in seven deaths.

November 7 - In The U.S. presidential election, Democratic President Woodrow Wilson narrowly defeats Republican Charles E. Hughes.

November 7 – In The U.S. presidential election, Democratic President Woodrow Wilson narrowly defeats Republican Charles E. Hughes.

November 7 - Republican Jeannette Rankin of Montana becomes the first woman elected to the United States House of Representatives.

November 7 – Republican Jeannette Rankin of Montana becomes the first woman elected to the United States House of Representatives.

November 18 – After 5 months and nearly half a million British casualties, BEF commander Douglas Haig calls off the Battle of the Somme.

November 18 – After 5 months and nearly half a million British casualties, BEF commander Douglas Haig calls off the Battle of the Somme.

November 21 - Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria dies of pneumonia at the Schönbrunn Palace, Vienna, aged 86, after a reign of 68 years and is succeeded by his grandnephew Charles I.

November 21 – Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria dies of pneumonia at the Schönbrunn Palace, Vienna, aged 86, after a reign of 68 years and is succeeded by his grandnephew Charles I.

November 23 – Bucharest, the capital of Romania, is occupied by troops of the Central Powers.

November 23 – Bucharest, the capital of Romania, is occupied by troops of the Central Powers.

December 12 – 'White Friday' in the Dolomites - 100 avalanches bury 18,000 Austrian and Italian soldiers.

December 12 – ‘White Friday’ in the Dolomites – 100 avalanches bury 18,000 Austrian and Italian soldiers.

December 18 – The Battle of Verdun ends in France with German troops defeated.

December 18 – The Battle of Verdun ends in France with German troops defeated.

December 22 – The British Sopwith Camel aircraft makes its maiden flight. It is designed to counter the German Fokker aircraft.

December 22 – The British Sopwith Camel aircraft makes its maiden flight. It is designed to counter the German Fokker aircraft.

December 30 - The mystic Grigori Rasputin is murdered in Saint Petersburg.

December 30 – The mystic Grigori Rasputin is murdered in Saint Petersburg.

Elsewhere in 1915

The Centuries of Sound episode for 1915 is now up for Patreon subscribers – get early access and my radio podcast where I discuss the music at https://www.patreon.com/centuriesofsound

January 1 - The Royal Navy battleship HMS Formidable is sunk off Lyme Regis, by an Imperial German Navy U-boat, with the loss of 547 crew.

January 1 – The Royal Navy battleship HMS Formidable is sunk off Lyme Regis, by an Imperial German Navy U-boat, with the loss of 547 crew.

January 13 – The vezzano earthquake shakes L'Aquila in Italy, with a maximum Mercalli intensity of XI (Extreme). Around 30,000 are killed.

January 13 – The vezzano earthquake shakes L’Aquila in Italy, with a maximum Mercalli intensity of XI (Extreme). Around 30,000 are killed.

January 17 – Russia defeats Ottoman Turkey at the Battle of Sarikamish

January 17 – Russia defeats Ottoman Turkey at the Battle of Sarikamish

Untergang englischer Kreuzer "Tiger"

January 24 – The British Grand Fleet defeats the German High Seas Fleet at Dogger bank, sinking the armoured cruiser SMS Blücher.

JANUAR~4

January 25 – The first United States coast-to-coast long-distance telephone call is facilitated by a newly invented vacuum tube amplifier, is made by Alexander Graham Bell in New York City and Thomas Watson, in San Francisco

February 8 – The Birth of a Nation, directed by D. W. Griffith, premieres in Los Angeles. It will be the highest-grossing film for around 25 years.

February 8 – The Birth of a Nation, directed by D. W. Griffith, premieres in Los Angeles. It will be the highest-grossing film for around 25 years.

March – The 1915 Palestine locust infestation breaks out in Palestine; it continues until October.

March – The 1915 Palestine locust infestation breaks out in Palestine; it continues until October.

March 10 - In the first deliberately planned British offensive of the war, British Indian troops overrun German positions at Neuve Chapelle in France, but are unable to sustain the advance.

March 10 – In the first deliberately planned British offensive of the war, British Indian troops overrun German positions at Neuve Chapelle in France, but are unable to sustain the advance.

April 11 – Charlie Chaplin's film The Tramp is released

April 11 – Charlie Chaplin’s film The Tramp is released

April 22 – At the start of Second Battle of Ypres Germany makes its first large scale use of poison gas on the Western Front.

April 22 – At the start of Second Battle of Ypres Germany makes its first large scale use of poison gas on the Western Front.

April 24 – The Armenian Genocide begins, with the deportation of Armenian notables from Istanbul.

April 24 – The Armenian Genocide begins, with the deportation of Armenian notables from Istanbul.

April 25 – A landing at Anzac Cove is conducted by Australian and New Zealand Army Corps, and a landing at Cape Helles by British and French troops, to begin the Allied invasion of Turkey

April 25 – A landing at Anzac Cove is conducted by Australian and New Zealand Army Corps, and a landing at Cape Helles by British and French troops, to begin the Allied invasion of Turkey

April 26 – Italy secretly agrees to leave the Triple Alliance with Germany and Austria-Hungary, and join with the Triple Entente, in exchange for certain territories of Austria-Hungary on its borders.

April 26 – Italy secretly agrees to leave the Triple Alliance with Germany and Austria-Hungary, and join with the Triple Entente, in exchange for certain territories of Austria-Hungary on its borders.

May 5 – Forces of the Ottoman Empire begin shelling ANZAC Cove from a new position behind their lines.

May 5 – Forces of the Ottoman Empire begin shelling ANZAC Cove from a new position behind their lines.

May 7 – The British ocean liner RMS Lusitania is sunk by German U-boat U-20 off the south-west coast of Ireland, killing 1,198 civilians en route from New York to Liverpool.

May 7 – The British ocean liner RMS Lusitania is sunk by German U-boat U-20 off the south-west coast of Ireland, killing 1,198 civilians en route from New York to Liverpool.

May 9 – German and French forces fight to a standstill at The Second Battle of Artois, German forces defeat the British at the Battle of Aubers Ridge.

May 9 – German and French forces fight to a standstill at The Second Battle of Artois, German forces defeat the British at the Battle of Aubers Ridge.

May 22 - Quintinshill rail disaster in Scotland - The collision and fire kill 226, mostly troops, the largest number of fatalities in a rail accident in the United Kingdom.

May 22 – Quintinshill rail disaster in Scotland – The collision and fire kill 226, mostly troops, the largest number of fatalities in a rail accident in the United Kingdom.

May 25 – China agrees to the Twenty-One Demands of the Japanese.These demands would greatly extend Japanese control of Manchuria and of the Chinese economy.

May 25 – China agrees to the Twenty-One Demands of the Japanese.These demands would greatly extend Japanese control of Manchuria and of the Chinese economy.

July 1 – German fighter pilot Kurt Wintgens becomes the first person to shoot down another plane, using a machine gun equipped with synchronization gear.

July 1 – German fighter pilot Kurt Wintgens becomes the first person to shoot down another plane, using a machine gun equipped with synchronization gear.

Warschau, Einmarsch deutscher Kavallerie

July 22 – The ‘Great Retreat’ is ordered on the Eastern Front, Russian forces pull back out of Poland (then part of Russia), taking machinery and equipment with them.

August 5 - Hurricane Two of the 1915 Atlantic hurricane season over Galveston and New Orleans leaves 275 dead.

August 5 – Hurricane Two of the 1915 Atlantic hurricane season over Galveston and New Orleans leaves 275 dead.

August 8 - The Allies mount a diversionary attack timed to coincide with a major Allied landing of reinforcements at Suvla Bay.

August 8 – The Allies mount a diversionary attack timed to coincide with a major Allied landing of reinforcements at Suvla Bay.

September 6 – The prototype military tank is first tested by the British Army.

September 6 – The prototype military tank is first tested by the British Army.

September 25 – British forces take the French town of Loos, but with substantial casualties, and are unable to press their advantage. This is the first time the British use poison gas in World War I.

September 25 – British forces take the French town of Loos, but with substantial casualties, and are unable to press their advantage. This is the first time the British use poison gas in World War I.

October – Franz Kafka's novella The Metamorphosis (Die Verwandlung) is first published in Germany.

October – Franz Kafka’s novella The Metamorphosis (Die Verwandlung) is first published in Germany.

October 15 – Austria-Hungary invades the Serbia. Bulgaria enters the war, also invading Serbia. The Serbian First Army retreats towards Greece.

October 15 – Austria-Hungary invades Serbia. Bulgaria enters the war, also invading Serbia. The Serbian First Army retreats towards Greece.

October 19 - The U.S. recognizes the de facto Mexican government of Venustiano Carranza

October 19 – The U.S. recognizes the de facto Mexican government of Venustiano Carranza

October 23 – The torpedoing of armored cruiser SMS Prinz Adalbert results in 672 deaths, the greatest single loss of life for the Imperial German Navy in the Baltic Sea during the war.

October 23 – The torpedoing of armored cruiser SMS Prinz Adalbert results in 672 deaths, the greatest single loss of life for the Imperial German Navy in the Baltic Sea during the war.

November 24 – William J. Simmons revives the American Civil War era Ku Klux Klan at Stone Mountain, Georgia.

November 24 – William J. Simmons revives the American Civil War era Ku Klux Klan at Stone Mountain, Georgia.

November 25 – Albert Einstein presents part of his theory of general relativity to the Prussian Academy of Sciences.

November 25 – Albert Einstein presents part of his theory of general relativity to the Prussian Academy of Sciences.

December 12 – President of the Republic of China Yuan Shikai declares himself Emperor.

December 12 – President of the Republic of China Yuan Shikai declares himself Emperor.

 

Elsewhere in 1914

January 1 – The St. Petersburg–Tampa Airboat Line in the United States starts services between St. Petersburg and Tampa, Florida, becoming the first airline to provide scheduled passenger services

January 1 – The St. Petersburg–Tampa Airboat Line in the United States starts services between St. Petersburg and Tampa, Florida, becoming the first airline to provide scheduled passenger services

January 9 – The Phi Beta Sigma fraternity is founded by African American students at Howard University, in Washington, D.C

January 9 – The Phi Beta Sigma fraternity is founded by African American students at Howard University, in Washington, D.C

February 2 – Charlie Chaplin makes his film début, in the comedy short Making a Living

February 2 – Charlie Chaplin makes his film début, in the comedy short Making a Living

March 10 – Suffragette Mary Richardson damages Velázquez' painting Rokeby Venus in London's National Gallery, with a meat chopper

March 10 – Suffragette Mary Richardson damages Velázquez’ painting Rokeby Venus in London’s National Gallery, with a meat chopper

March 16 – Henriette Caillaux, wife of French minister Joseph Caillaux, murders Gaston Calmette, editor of Le Figaro, fearing publication of letters showing she and Caillaux were romantically involved

March 16 – Henriette Caillaux, wife of French minister Joseph Caillaux, murders Gaston Calmette, editor of Le Figaro, fearing publication of letters showing she and Caillaux were romantically involved

April 4 - The Komagata Maru sails from India to Canada. Due to Canadian regulations designed to exclude Asian immigrants, the boat is forced to return to Calcutta with all its passengers

April 4 – The Komagata Maru sails from India to Canada. Due to Canadian regulations designed to exclude Asian immigrants, the boat is forced to return to Calcutta with all its passengers

APRIL9~1

April 9 – A misunderstanding involving US Navy sailors in Mexico and army troops loyal to Mexican dictator Victoriano Huerta leads to a breakdown in diplomatic relations between the United States and Mexico

April 20 - The Colorado National Guard attacks a tent colony of 1,200 striking coal miners in Ludlow, Colorado, killing 24 people

April 20 – The Colorado National Guard attacks a tent colony of 1,200 striking coal miners in Ludlow, Colorado, killing 24 people

April 21 – 2300 U.S. Navy sailors and Marines from the South Atlantic fleet land in the port city of Veracruz, Mexico, which they will occupy for over six months

April 21 – 2300 U.S. Navy sailors and Marines from the South Atlantic fleet land in the port city of Veracruz, Mexico, which they will occupy for over six months

June 12 – Ottoman Greeks in Phocaea are massacred by Turkish irregular troops

June 12 – Ottoman Greeks in Phocaea are massacred by Turkish irregular troops

June 28 – Serbian nationalist Gavrilo Princip assassinates Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his wife, Duchess Sophie, in Sarajevo.

June 28 – Serbian nationalist Gavrilo Princip assassinates Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his wife, Duchess Sophie, in Sarajevo.

June 29 - Anti-Serb riots in Sarajevo and Zagreb break out

June 29 – Anti-Serb riots in Sarajevo and Zagreb break out

July 23 – Austria-Hungary presents Serbia with an unconditional ultimatum.

July 23 – Austria-Hungary presents Serbia with an unconditional ultimatum.

July 28 - Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia by telegram. Tsar Nicholas II of Russia orders a partial mobilisation against Austria-Hungary.

July 28 – Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia by telegram. Tsar Nicholas II of Russia orders a partial mobilisation against Austria-Hungary.

July 28 – British and French naval forces fail to prevent the ships of the Imperial German Navy Mediterranean Division from reaching the Dardanelles.

July 28 – British and French naval forces fail to prevent the ships of the Imperial German Navy Mediterranean Division from reaching the Dardanelles.

August 1 - Germany declares war on Russia, following Russia's military mobilization in support of Serbia. Germany also begins mobilisation.

August 1 – Germany declares war on Russia, following Russia’s military mobilization in support of Serbia. Germany also begins mobilisation.

August 2 - German troops occupy Luxembourg

August 2 – German troops occupy Luxembourg

August 4 - German troops invade Belgium at 8.02 am. In London the King declares war on Germany for this violation of Belgian neutrality and to defend France

August 4 – German troops invade Belgium at 8.02 am. In London the King declares war on Germany for this violation of Belgian neutrality and to defend France

August 5 – The German Army overruns and defeats the Belgians at Liège with the first operational use of Big Bertha (a howitzer).

August 5 – The German Army overruns and defeats the Belgians at Liège with the first operational use of Big Bertha (a howitzer).

August 7 – France launches its first attack of the war, in an ultimately unsuccessful attempt to recover the province of Alsace from Germany, beginning the Battle of the Frontiers.

August 7 – France launches its first attack of the war, in an ultimately unsuccessful attempt to recover the province of Alsace from Germany, beginning the Battle of the Frontiers.

August 17 – The Battle of Tannenberg begins between German and Russian forces.

August 17 – The Battle of Tannenberg begins between German and Russian forces.

August 23 – In its first major action at the Battle of Mons, the British Expeditionary Force holds the German forces, but then begins a month-long fighting Great Retreat to the Marne.

August 23 – In its first major action at the Battle of Mons, the British Expeditionary Force holds the German forces, but then begins a month-long fighting Great Retreat to the Marne.

August 24 – Serbian troops defeat the Austro-Hungarian army at the Battle of Cer, marking the first Entente victory of the War.

August 24 – Serbian troops defeat the Austro-Hungarian army at the Battle of Cer, marking the first Entente victory of the War.

August 27 – At the Battle of Le Cateau, British, French and Belgian forces make a successful tactical retreat from the German advance.

August 27 – At the Battle of Le Cateau, British, French and Belgian forces make a successful tactical retreat from the German advance.

August 28 – At Heligoland Bight British cruisers under Admiral Beatty sink three German cruisers.

August 28 – At Heligoland Bight British cruisers under Admiral Beatty sink three German cruisers.

August 30 – At The Battle of Tannenberg, The Russian Second Army is surrounded and defeated.

August 30 – At The Battle of Tannenberg, The Russian Second Army is surrounded and defeated.

September 5 - The First Battle of the Marne begins when French 6th Army attacks German forces near to Paris. Over 2 million fight, and a quarter are killed or wounded

September 5 – The First Battle of the Marne begins when French 6th Army attacks German forces near to Paris. Over 2 million fight, and a quarter are killed or wounded

September 22 - German submarine U-9 torpedoes three British Royal Navy armoured cruisers, HMS Aboukir, Cressy and Hogue, with the death of more than 1,400 men, in the North Sea.

September 22 – German submarine U-9 torpedoes three British Royal Navy armoured cruisers, HMS Aboukir, Cressy and Hogue, with the death of more than 1,400 men, in the North Sea.

October 9 – Antwerp (Belgium) falls to German troops.

October 9 – Antwerp (Belgium) falls to German troops.

October 19 – The First Battle of Ypres begins.

October 19 – The First Battle of Ypres begins.

October 31 – At The Battle of the Yser, the Belgian army halts the German advance, but with heavy losses

October 31 – At The Battle of the Yser, the Belgian army halts the German advance, but with heavy losses

October 31 – The Battle of the Vistula River concludes in Russian victory over German and Austro-Hungarian forces around Warsaw.

October 31 – The Battle of the Vistula River concludes in Russian victory over German and Austro-Hungarian forces around Warsaw.

November 5 - After the shelling of Russian Black Sea ports, Britain and France declare war on The Ottoman Empire

November 5 – After the shelling of Russian Black Sea ports, Britain and France declare war on The Ottoman Empire

November 7 – The Japanese and British seize Jiaozhou Bay in China, the base of the German East Asia Squadron at Tsingtao.

November 7 – The Japanese and British seize Jiaozhou Bay in China, the base of the German East Asia Squadron at Tsingtao.

December 2 – Austro-Hungarian forces occupy the Serbian capital of Belgrade.

December 2 – Austro-Hungarian forces occupy the Serbian capital of Belgrade.

December 19 - The Battle of Kolubara ends, resulting in a decisive Serbian victory over Austria-Hungary.

December 19 – The Battle of Kolubara ends, resulting in a decisive Serbian victory over Austria-Hungary.

December 24 - An unofficial, temporary Christmas truce begins, between British and German soldiers on the Western Front.

December 24 – An unofficial, temporary Christmas truce begins, between British and German soldiers on the Western Front.