Elsewhere in 1918

January 8 – Woodrow Wilson delivers his Fourteen Points speech

January 8 – Woodrow Wilson delivers his Fourteen Points speech

January 27 – The Finnish Civil War begins with the Battle of Kämärä

February 1 – Austrian sailors in the Gulf of Cattaro, led by two Czech Socialists, mutiny

February 6 – The Representation of the People Act gives most women over 30 the vote in the UK

February 16 – The Council of Lithuania adopts the Act of Independence of Lithuania, declaring Lithuania’s independence from Russia

February 19 – The Capture of Jericho by the Egyptian Expeditionary Force begins the British occupation of the Jordan Valley

February 19-25 – The Imperial Russian Navy evacuates Tallinn through thick ice, over the Gulf of Finland

February 24 – Estonia declares its independence from Russia, after seven centuries of foreign rule. German forces capture Tallinn the following day

March 3 – The Central Powers and Russia sign the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, ending Russia’s involvement in WW1

March 8 – The Battle of Tell ‘Asur is launched by units of the British Army’s Egyptian Expeditionary Force against Ottoman defences

March 21 – The Spring Offensive by the German Army begins with Operation Michael – there are nearly 20,000 British Army dead on the first day

March 23 – In London at the Wood Green Empire, Chung Ling Soo (William E. Robinson, U.S.-born magician) dies during his trick, where he is supposed to catch two bullets when one of them perforates his lung

March 23 – The giant German cannon, the ‘Paris Gun’, begins to shell Paris from 114 km away

March 26 – Dr. Marie Stopes publishes her influential book Married Love in the U.K

March 27 – The First Battle of Amman is launched by units of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force

March 30 – Bolshevik and Armenian Revolutionary Federation forces suppress a Muslim revolt in Baku, Azerbaijan, resulting in up to 30,000 deaths

April 5 – Sālote succeeds as Queen of Tonga – she will remain on the throne until her death in 1965

April 21 – Manfred von Richthofen, ‘The Red Baron’, dies in combat at Morlancourt Ridge near the Somme River

April 23 – A general strike is held in Ireland against conscription

April 23 – The British Navy raids Zeebrugge and Ostend, attempting to seal off the German U-boat bases there

April 28 – Gavrilo Princip, assassin of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, dies in Terezin, Austria-Hungary, after three years in prison

May 11 – The Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus is officially established

May 26 – Georgia declares its independence as the Democratic Republic of Georgia.

May 28 – Armenia and Azerbaijan declare their independence as the First Republic of Armenia and the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic

May 29 – The Battle of Sardarabad concludes with defending Armenian forces victorious over the Ottomans.

June – The ‘Spanish ‘flu’ becomes pandemic. Over 30 million people die in the following 6 months.

June 1 – The Battle of Belleau Wood begins.

June 10 – Austro-Hungarian dreadnought battleship SMS Szent István is sunk by two Italian MAS motor torpedo boats off the Dalmatian coast.

June 12 – Grand Duke Michael of Russia is killed, becoming the first of the Romanovs to be executed by the Bolsheviks.

July 3 – The Siberian Intervention is launched by the Allies, to extract the Czechoslovak Legion from the Russian Civil War

July 4 – Mehmed VI succeeds as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire on the death of his half-brother Mehmed V

July 9 – In Nashville, Tennessee, an inbound local train collides with an outbound express, killing 101.

July 12 – Japanese battleship Kawachi blows up off Tokuyama, killing at least 621

July 15 – The Second Battle of the Marne begins near the River Marne, with a German attack

July 17 – By order of the Bolshevik Party, Tsar Nicholas II, his wife Alexandra Feodorovna, their children, Olga, Tatiana, Maria, Anastasia, Alexei and retainers are shot at the Ipatiev House, in Ekaterinburg, Russia.

August 2 – British anti-Bolshevik forces occupy Arkhangelsk in North Russia.

August 8 – British, Canadian and Australian troops begin a string of almost continuous victories, the ‘Hundred Days Offensive’, with an 8-mile push through the German front lines at the Battle of Amiens, taking 12,000 prisoners.

August 21 – The Second Battle of the Somme begins

August 27 – U.S. Army forces skirmish against Mexican Carrancistas and their German advisors at Nogales, Arizona, in the only battle of WWI fought on United States soil.

September 3 – The Bolshevik government of Russia publishes the first official announcement of the Red Terror, a period of repression against political opponents, as an ‘Appeal to the Working Class’ in the newspaper Izvestia

September 4 –The Battle of Mont Saint-Quentin concludes with the Australian Corps breaking the German line.

September 15–18 – At The Battle of Dobro Pole, The Allied Army of the Orient defeats Bulgarian defenders.

September 19 – The British Army launches the Battle of Megiddo, an attack in the Judaean Mountains, which breaks the Ottoman front line stretching from the Mediterranean coast to the Judaean Mountains.

September 26 – The Meuse-Argonne Offensive begins, the largest and bloodiest operation of the war for the American Expeditionary Forces.

September 27 – The Battle of the Canal du Nord, launched by British and Empire forces, continues the advance towards the Hindenburg Line.

September 29 – The Battle of St Quentin Canal begins – Allied forces advance towards the Hindenburg Line

October 3 – Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany appoints Max von Baden Chancellor of Germany.

October 7 – The Regency Council declares Polish independence from the German Empire, and demands that Germany cede the Polish provinces of Poznań, Upper Silesia and Polish Pomerania

October 8–10 – British and Canadian troops take Cambrai from the Germans and the First and Third British Armies break through the Hindenburg Line

October 18 – The Washington Declaration proclaims the independent Czechoslovak Republic

October 31 – The Hungarian government terminates the personal union with Austria, officially dissolving the Austro-Hungarian Empire

November 1 – The Polish–Ukrainian War is inaugurated, by the proclamation of the West Ukrainian People’s Republic in Galicia, with a capital at Lwów.

November 1 – The worst rapid transit accident in world history occurs under the intersection of Malbone Street and Flatbush Avenue, in Brooklyn, New York City, with at least 93 dead

November 3 – Austria-Hungary enters an armistice with the Allies, at the Villa Giusti in Padua

November 9 – Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany abdicates and chooses to live in exile in the Netherlands. The German Republic is proclaimed by Philipp Scheidemann in Berlin, on the Reichstag balcony

November 11 – Emperor Charles I of Austria gives up his absolute power, but does not abdicate

November 11 – Germany signs an armistice agreement with the Allies, between 5:12 AM and 5:20 AM, in Marshal Foch’s railroad car, in the Forest of Compiègne in France. It becomes official on the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month

November 21 – Polish troops, volunteers and freed criminals massacre at least 320 Ukrainian Christians and Jews in Lwów, Galicia

November 28 – The Red Army invades Estonia, starting the Estonian War of Independence

December 1 – Following the March 27 incorporation of Bessarabia and Bucovina, Transylvania unites with the Kingdom of Romania

December 1 – Iceland regains independence, but remains in personal union with the King of Denmark, who also becomes the King of Iceland until 1944

December 28 – Sinn Féin wins wins 73 of the 105 seats in the Irish General Election. Countess Constance Markievicz, while detained in Holloway Prison (London), becomes the first woman elected to (but does not take her seat in) the British House of Commons.

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