1916

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The story of recorded must prior to 1917 has been, on a personal level, a juggle with two opposing narratives. First there is of course the convoluted journey towards the explosion in jazz and blues of the late 1910s and 1920. Then there’s the other side, the world of music and musicians who had their own path and their own values. So far these two threads have been happy so sit peacefully side by side, occasionally intertwining, but always on their own terms. In 1916, though, there is an overwhelming feeling that something really big is coming. Perhaps its the war (covered here by a single track) with its mythical power to change attitudes, perhaps its the work of a number of talented individuals, perhaps the spread of the gramophone is making it necessary – but for whatever reason, the majority of music in this mix seems to be almost-but-not-quite jazz and blues.

A couple of exceptions to this, before we go digging in – the mix kicks off with one of a couple of very atmospheric klezmer cymbolom instrumentals (this is a genre which would not be so easily colonised by the new music), and features yet more of the Hawaiian craze which seems to have been a constant in the decade. The biggest revelation here may be from fiddler Don Richardson – his instrumental version of Arkansas Traveller (featured on here a couple of times before in its vaudeville form) is as far as I can tell indistinguishable from the “first country records” which would kick off the other musical explosion in about a decade’s time.

Blues has been around for a while at this point, though not so much as a genre as a mood, or perhaps even what we might call a meme now. The sheet music for “I Got the Blues” by New Orleans musician Antonio Maggio was published in 1908, and over the following decade a number of other songs started riffing on the idea, including some written in Tin Pan Alley and given to a new generation of female vaudeville singers, most notably Sophie Tucker. In this vein we have torch-song standard “I Ain’t Got Nobody” – here performed by Marion Harris, the music for which was written by a black songwriter, Spencer Williams – a pattern of visible white performers with black artists in the background which started as early as the 1890s and would continue until the start of the 1920s.

This naturally leads on to one of the accidental shifts this music has pushed into view. W.C. Handy’s compositions weren’t just called “blues” – they actually drew from his life as a black man in the south of the USA, the presumed source of the melodies and rhythms which easily delineate this music to the modern ear. The St Louis Blues was his breakthrough hit, but is here presented as an instrumental, and performed by a ragtime dance band who had started out performing military marches, led by Charles Adams Prince, a record company director and relative to two US presidents.

The appallingly titled “Nigger Blues” was, naturally, written by a white man, Lee “Lasses” White, a veteran of minstrel shows and “coon songs” who would go on to become a stock actor in early westerns. It would be nice to think that the racism of the turn of the century was dying off by this point, but this would be extremely wishful thinking. “Chinese Blues” was written by young George Gershwin, and is here represented by the composer himself (on a piano roll) and Sousa’s Band, of all people.

The most striking example of all this dissonance, however, is to be found on “That Funny Jas Band From Dixieland” performed by Arthur Collins and Byron G Harlan. Collins, now billed as “king of the ragtime singers”, has a long and very mixed history on this site, as is natural for a figure who looms as large as he does in pre-WW1 music. A good case could be made that “That Funny Jas Band” is the first jazz recording, but it’s a bit less embarrassing to call it “the first recording that mentions jazz” as it is, on the whole, the sort of embarrassing racist churned-out “coon song” which you’d instinctively want to sweep under the carpet – it even includes a painful bit of minstrel-show banter in the middle. For all that though, I don’t know what you can call the instrumental break at the end except jazz – it’s straight out of an Original Dixieland piece.

If we are going to award the birth of jazz to anyone in 1916, though, perhaps the best recipient would be the two acts that close the mix. We’ve heard “Down Home Rag” before, performed at a frantic pace by James Reece Europe and his ‘Society Orchestra’ – but here it is again, first performed by its composer Wilbur Sweatman, on course to become one of the founding fathers of jazz. Then we switch into a supercharged version played by The Versatile Four, associates of Europe who had branched out to form a more portable unit, able to tour the USA and Europe. They may be a smaller ensemble, but their glorious racket is more than enough to match Europe’s Society Orchestra. This really feels like the start of something.

Tracklist

0:00:00 Joseph Moskowitz – Doina
0:01:06 Gilbert Girard & Company – Daybreak at Calamity Farm (Part 1)
0:01:15 Eugene Jaudas National Promenade Band – Memphis Blues
0:04:36 R.H. Burnside – A New York Hippodrome Rehearsal
0:04:45 Arthur Collins – Hesitating Blues
0:06:15 Prince’s Orchestra – The Hesitating Blues
0:07:56 George O’Connor – Nigger Blues
0:10:27 Gladys Rice – Here Comes Tootsie
0:10:41 Marion Harris – I Ain’t Got Nobody
0:12:20 Elsie Baker & Billy Murray – Play A Simple Melody
0:13:17 Gilbert Girard & Company – Daybreak at Calamity Farm (Part 2)
0:13:42 Abe Schwartz – Sadigurer Chused’l
0:16:39 Aleksandr Vertinskiy – Malen’kiy Kreol’chik
0:19:20 Jeanne Feinberg – Rozhinkes Mit Mandlen
0:21:17 Enrico Caruso – Ah Tout Est Bien Fini (Le Cid)
0:23:54 Karl I of Austria – Speech, Feb 1916
0:24:05 Murray Johnson – Pack Up Your Troubles
0:26:47 Barney Bernard – Goldstein Goes in the Railroad Business
0:27:06 Kyria Koula – Tsifte Teli
0:29:07 Canhoto – Abismo De Rosas
0:30:18 Raquel Meller – Los Impertinentes Mágicos
0:32:55 Quinteto Borinquen – Diamante Negro
0:34:31 Pepita Ramos ‘La Goyita’ – La Modista Militar
0:36:44 Helen Louise & Frank Ferera – Hapa Haole Hula Girl
0:37:51 Rene Dietrich and Horace Wright – My Own Iona
0:40:18 Ciro’s Club Coon Orchestra – On The Shore at Le-Lei-Wei
0:42:51 Scott Joplin – Magnetic Rag
0:45:42 Avon Comedy Four – Ginberg’s Stump Speech
0:45:56 Six Brown Brothers – Walkin’ The Dog
0:48:12 Eugene Jaudas National Promenade Band – Walkin’ The Dog
0:51:30 Fred Van Eps – Raggin’ The Scale
0:54:08 George Gershwin – Chinese Blues
0:56:14 Sousa’s Band – Chinese Blues
0:57:40 Lou Chiha Frisco – Kangaroo Hop
0:59:29 George Formby Snr – The Grandfather’s Clock
1:02:14 Bert Williams – Never Mo’
1:04:48 Strassmeir Dachaur Bauernkapelle – Werdenfelser Trompeten Landler
1:07:41 Conway’s Band – Two-Key Rag
1:10:42 Prince’s Band – St. Louis Blues
1:13:24 Eugene Jaudas Society Orchestra – Step With Pep
1:15:26 W.G. Haenschen & T.T. Schiffer – Sunset Medley
1:17:14 Cunniah Naidu – Modi Instrumental- Ragam-Alapana In Thodi
1:19:02 Adeline Francis – The Mouse and the Thomas Cat
1:19:15 Don Richardson – Arkansas Traveller
1:22:00 F. J. Bacon – Massas in De Cold, Cold Ground
1:22:51 Charles Ross Taggart – Old Country Fiddler at the Telephone
1:23:12 Collins & Harlan – That Funny Jas Band From Dixieland
1:26:49 Wilbur Sweatman – Down Home Rag
1:28:10 The Versatile Four – Down Home Rag

1915

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“Looking back in hindsight, 1915 appears to be a saga of such horrors, of such mismanagement and muddle, that it is easy to see why it coloured the views of succeeding generations and gave rise to prejudices and myths that have been applied to the whole war. But it was a year of learning. A year of cobbling together, of frustration, of indecision. In a sense a year of innocence. Therein lies its tragedy.” – Lynn Macdonald – 1915: The Death of Innocence

Nobody is likely to make the case for 1915 as a marquee year in the history of recorded music, and, to be frank, I am not going to change anyone’s mind on the issue today. Certainly there is a lot of good music being played, somewhere, the recordings of the next decade didn’t just spring up from thin air, but with the downturn in recording due to the war, coupled with the dissipation of the hot ragtime craze, everything has an odd air of being either too late or too early to the party.

The stars of this mix are in a sense unlike those we’ve encountered before, in that nobody is apparently interested in writing a glowing biography of Eugene Jaudas or Henry Burr. But dare I suggest there is something sort of here? With the bigger names either out of the game (James Reece Europe will be back in 1918) or past their best (even Bert Williams is by this point sounding a little tired of the game, and we don’t even have jazz yet!), acts who would usually be also-rans are given a chance to flourish. Whether they deserve this chance is moot, I at least have them to build a mix around which doesn’t have to sound like it’s going through the motions.

Eugene Jaudas was a bandleader, violin soloist and director of music at Edison Records, and seems to have decided to cash in on the success of Europe’s Society Orchestra by launching his own knock-off version. As might be expected, the frenetic pace and inventiveness have been largely done away with – however in their place there is a very professional sort of energy which works well on its own terms. The transformation of the raw sound of hot ragtime into a formalized pop discipline begins and ends here – in two years everyone will be trying to play jazz instead. Accidentally this fairly cynical cash-in attempt therefore led to music which is more-or-less unique. The mediocre jazz-age Jaudas recordings are evidence that the genre was probably a dead end, but for now this sounds sort of exciting in its own way.

Not all of the artists from 1915 disappeared in the 1920s. Patrick Conway managed to become the leader of a very successful radio orchestra. Novelty vaudeville saxophone group Five Brown Brothers, or even Six Brown Brothers, turned their blackface into clown make-up and retconned themselves (with some justification) as jazz pioneers. And Fred Van Eps, now eclipsing Vess L Ossman as the banjo soloist of choice, continued recording all the way to the 1960s.

All of this may seem beside the point in the year of Galipoli and Ypres, and perhaps it is, but where this human experience resides we have only a void in the audio record. This isn’t to say that the war is not covered here – only that it’s viewed from afar, and with a great deal of suspicion. The biggest hit of 1915 by some counts is I Didn’t Raise My Boy To Be A Soldier, a rehashing of the old sentimental wayward soldier boy trope, with the twist being that he hasn’t gone off to war and he won’t. Not that it stops it being sentimental, of course, but directing such mawk in the direction of pacifism is strangely effective, especially when considering as horrible and pointless a war as this one. We also have the spin-off song, essentially the same deal, titled ‘Don’t Take My Darling Boy”. Some of these same singers would change their minds apparently at the same moment as Woodrow Wilson, whose campaign slogan in the 1916 election was to be “He kept us out of the war.”

Judge for yourself what you think of 1915, but be assured, this world is about to be swept away.

Tracks

0:00:16 George Formby Snr – All of a Sudden it Struck Me
0:02:38 Miller R. Hutchinson – Transcontinental Telephone Message
0:03:11 Irving Kaufman – Listen to That Dixie Band
0:05:23 Jaudas’ Society Orchestra – Pick a Chicken
0:09:27 National Promenade Band – Paprika
0:11:25 Bert Williams – I’m Neutral
0:12:56 Henry Burr – I Didn’t Raise My Boy to Be a Soldier
0:14:54 Peerless Quartet – I Didn’t Raise My Boy to Be a Soldier
0:15:36 Cal Stewart – War Talk at Punkin Center
0:16:55 Henry Burr & Peerless Quartet – Don’t Take My Darling Boy
0:18:26 Charles Crawford Gorst – Laughing Love
0:19:59 Billy Murray – Which Switch is the Switch, Miss, for Ipswich?
0:21:51 Joe Hayman – Cohen at the Real Estate Office
0:23:08 Joseph A. Phillips – My Lady of the Telephone
0:24:55 Patrick Conway’s Band – Ragging the Scale
0:27:50 Five Brown Brothers – Independentia and Billboard
0:29:49 Bahiano – O Meu Boi Morreu
0:32:25 Dúo Ruiz Acuña – Corazones Partidos
0:35:03 María Conesa – Ni Una Palabra Más (2ª Parte)
0:37:09 David K.Kaili & Pale K. Lua – Honolulu March
0:39:43 Fred Van Eps Banjo – Omena Intermezzo
0:42:37 Harry E. Humphrey – An Old Sweetheart of Mine
0:42:59 Isidore Moskowitz – a Flower of Italy
0:45:48 Harry E. Humphrey – Antony’s Address Over the Body of Caesar
0:46:02 Sangit Vidyarnab Gopeswar Banerjee – Sitar Instrumental- Kafi Tetala
0:48:29 Abe Elenkrig’s Yidishe Orchestra – Nit Ba Motin
0:50:21 Vladimir Mayakovsky – Naval Romance
0:50:33 Victor Military Band – Booster Box Trot
0:53:05 Six Brown Brothers – Chicken Reel Comedy Medley
0:54:46 Ada Reeve – Foolish Questions
0:57:37 Collins & Harlan – Mississippi Barbecue
0:59:26 Cal Stewart – Uncle Josh in a Barber Shop
1:00:11 Harry Fay – They All Do the Charlie Chaplin Walk
1:01:44 Eugene Jaudas Society Orchestra – Carnival One Step
1:03:18 Guido Deiro – Put Me to Sleep With an Old-Fashioned Melody
1:04:44 Bert Williams – Indoor Sports
1:06:19 Right Quintette – Exhortation
1:09:30 Enrico Caruso – Cielo Turchino (Ciociano)
1:11:51 Arvid Paulson – Karolinas Tråkigheter
1:11:58 The Premier Quartet – Moonlight Bay
1:13:57 Vess Ossman’s Banjo Orchestra – Universal Fox Trot
1:15:39 George Formby Snr – All of a Sudden it Struck Me (Outro)

1914

1914 (large)

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Those long uneven lines
Standing as patiently
As if they were stretched outside
The Oval or Villa Park,
The crowns of hats, the sun
On moustached archaic faces
Grinning as if it were all
An August Bank Holiday lark;

And the shut shops, the bleached
Established names on the sunblinds,
The farthings and sovereigns,
And dark-clothed children at play
Called after kings and queens,
The tin advertisements
For cocoa and twist, and the pubs
Wide open all day;

And the countryside not caring:
The place-names all hazed over
With flowering grasses, and fields
Shadowing Domesday lines
Under wheat’s restless silence;
The differently-dressed servants
With tiny rooms in huge houses,
The dust behind limousines;

Never such innocence,
Never before or since,
As changed itself to past
Without a word – the men
Leaving the gardens tidy,
The thousands of marriages,
Lasting a little while longer:
Never such innocence again.

Philip Larkin – MCMXIV (1964)

When I make these mixes I am dealing with original sources, but with a very restricted selection, as representation was at this time anathema to the recording industry. This has been an advantage, on the whole, so far – the surviving audio has led me to make soundscapes of these years which seem to emerge organically, and which need very little agonising over inclusion criteria. If a year doesn’t sound the way I expected, then good! The new picture is always more rounded and interesting than the preconception (I would make no claims at all about it being more ‘accurate’ or ‘authentic’ – at least not so far.)

But then, here is 1914, and all of this is swept away. The horrors seen in this year, and in the next four, dominate any imagination of the early part of the 20th century. What does the slow evolution of ragtime and vaudeville have when put up against humanity deciding to destroy itself in ways so shocking that they were beyond all prior imagining?

This isn’t to say that there wasn’t a response. Germany, France and Russia understandably did not apparently have the time to record topical music, and for the USA it was still a foreign entanglement in a far-away place, but Britain did at least focus some of its energies onto responding to this existential threat, albeit in the buttoned-up-but-jolly spirit which was thought of as the best possible stance in the face of the horrors of the modern world.

‘It’s a Long Way to Tipperary’ was written two years before the outbreak of war, but its theme of separation from loved ones in a foreign land alongside its simple march-ready rhythm made it an easy fit for soldiers heading towards the front. On the 18th of August the Connaught Rangers, an Irish regiment, were heard singing the song as they marched, and a dispatch along these lines in the Daily Mail led to it being picked up by other British Army units, as the war’s first theme song. How much input your average fighting Tommy had into this phenomenon is questionable – the keeping up of spirits is primarily something for the people left at home.

Another song requisitioned for the war effort is “Sister Susie’s Sewing Shirts for Soldiers” – a tongue twister intended to be repeated at increasing speeds by the inebriated, with humorous results. The song allows for a modicum of cynical levity such as “when we say her stitching will set all the soldiers itching / She says our soldiers fight best when their back’s against the wall.” – this is in contrast to straight-laced propaganda pieces like “Belgium Put the Kibosh on the Kaiser” which save their fire for jingoistic mockery of the enemy, and vaudeville sketches which are concerned only with painting the German leadership as arrogant buffoons.

I have restricted the war to the first 20 minutes of this mix – the rest takes place outside Europe, in the parts of the world so far not affected enough to put on hold their hot dance ragtime, foxtrots, tangos and other lighthearted entertainments. Personally, I find this a more enjoyable listen (and I’m fairly sure you’ll feel the same) but a slightly guilty one. I could have front-loaded the hot ragtime, but that would have been hiding what little we have to represent the history of the year. It’s a bit messy, and a bit of a compromise, but perhaps that’s what it needs to be.

Tracklist

0:00:25 Pale K. Lua – The Rosary
0:03:17 General Nelson A. Miles – Visit of General Nelson A. Miles
0:03:23 Edison Concert Band – Hungarian Rhapsody No. 2 (Part 1)
0:03:51 Kaiser Wilhelm II – Aufruf an Die Deutschen
0:04:13 Billy Murray & American Quartet – It’s a Long Long Way to Tipperary
0:05:48 Stanley Kirkby – It’s a Long Long Way to Tipperary
0:06:42 Princes Orchestra – Its a Long Long Way to Tipperary
0:07:59 Penrose and Whitlock – Potsdam (Part 1)
0:08:21 Billy Murray – Sister Susie’s Sewing Shirts for Soldiers
0:10:20 Jack Charman – Sister Susie’s Sewing Shirts
0:11:48 Penrose and Whitlock – Potsdam (Part 2)
0:12:33 Jack Sheridan – Belgium Put the Kibosh on the Kaiser
0:14:47 Jolly Jesters – The Battle That Wasn’t
0:15:27 Eugene Jaudas National Promenade Band – Meadowbrook Rag
0:17:18 Josephus Daniels – Sec. of Navy Daniels. Edison Lab
0:17:35 Folk and Liturgical Choir of Tbilisi – Chona
0:18:30 Arvid Paulson – Karolinas Tråkigheter
0:18:47 Tuskegee Institute Singers – Live A-Humble
0:20:08 Europe’s Society Orchestra – Castle Walk
0:22:34 Mrs. Josephus Daniels – Mrs. Jos. Daniels. Edison Lab (Part 1)
0:22:43 Van Eps Banjo Orchestra – Some Baby
0:25:40 Mrs. Josephus Daniels – Mrs. Jos. Daniels. Edison Lab (Part 2)
0:26:02 United States Marine Band – Crazy Bone Rag
0:28:33 National Promenade Band – Lu Lu
0:30:04 Victor Military Band – Music Box Rag
0:31:27 Six Brown Brothers – That Moanin’ Saxophone Rag
0:33:36 Europe’s Society Orchestra – Castle House Rag
0:36:39 Felix Arndt – From Soup to Nuts
0:38:57 Thomas A. Watson, Assistant to Alexander Graham Bell – the Birth of the Telephone
0:39:05 George Formby Snr – John Willie’s Ragtime Band
0:41:49 Ada Jones and Len Spencer – Si Perkins’ Barn Dance
0:42:11 Ada Jones & Peerless Quartet – Pussy Cat Rag
0:44:06 Fred Duprez – Happy Tho’ Married
0:45:14 Billy Murray – Ragtime Temple Bells
0:46:45 Olly Oakley & Alfred Cammeyer – Chinese Patrol
0:48:21 Pietro Deiro – Hungarian Rag
0:49:41 Aristide Bruant – Aupres De Ma Blonde
0:51:42 Van Eps Banjo Orchestra – Sans Souci
0:52:43 Chiquinha Gonzaga – Sultana
0:54:58 Joan Sawyer’s Persian Garden Orchestra – Bregeiro
0:56:39 Jules Sims – Bagai Sala Que Pochery Moin
0:59:05 Glacier Park Indians – White Dog Song
1:00:14 Geoffrey O’Hara – Navajo Indian Songs (With Drums)
1:00:53 Kitty Berger – Romance From Leclair
1:02:41 Henry Heidelberg & Eugene C Rose Piccolo Duet – Will O’ the Wisp
1:04:14 Cal Stewart – Moving Day at Pumpkin Centre
1:04:41 Helen Clark and Billy Murray – Mrs. Sippi, You’re a Grand Old Lady
1:06:21 Charles Daab – Fairest Rose
1:08:30 Dr. Clarence Penny – Indianola Patrol
1:10:47 Harry Houdini – Description of Stunt
1:11:24 Edison Concert Band – Hungarian Rhapsody No. 2 (Part 2)
1:12:14 Enrico Caruso – Amor Mio (Ricciardi)
1:15:38 Andrew Carnegie – Speech
1:15:55 Charles G Widdén – Sockerdricka (Swedish Song)
1:16:53 Harry E. Humphrey – Night Before Christmas
1:17:00 Bert Williams – You Can’t Get Away From It
1:18:24 Rev. Madison Clinton Peters and the Edison Mixed Quartet – Rev. 21- 21 to 25;the Gate Ajar for Me
1:20:14 Afro-American Folk Song Singers – The Rain Song
1:23:18 George Formby Sr – Closing Monologue

 

1913

1913 cover

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“How can we regard this invasion of vulgarity in music other than as a national calamity, in so far as the mental attainments of the nation are concerned? This cheap, trashy stuff could not elevate even the most degraded minds, nor could it possibly urge any one to greater effort in the acquisition of culture in any phase. There is no element of intellectuality in the enjoyment of ragtime. It savors too much the primeval conception of music, whose basis was a rhythm that appealed to the physical rather than to the mental senses” – ‘Abuses of Music’ Paul G Carr in ‘Musician’, 1912

“I know little about American music except that of the music halls, but I consider that unrivaled. It is veritable art, and I never can get enough of it to satisfy me. I am convinced of the absolute truth of utterance in that form of American art.” – Igor Stavinsky in New York Tribune, 1916

We are our 25th year of mixes now, and so far what has conspicuously been missing is the shock of the new. Sure, there have been glimpses from time to time of futures which did or did not happen, but on the whole popular culture (or the part of it which was captured) seems to have been happy enough to trundle on, making gradual progress, without anything to really shock the parents. As of 1913, that era is now done. Is this the start of the jazz age then? No. This is the short-lived Hot Ragtime & Foxtrot craze of 1913/1914, not just another precursor on the road to the 1920s, but a fully-fledged moral-panic-inducing intercontinental shift in both style and consumption, very much at odds with the cliches of a placid pre-WW1 society. This is real dance music made for real young people.

The person more responsible for this than any other is James Reece Europe. Born into reconstruction-era Alabama, he moved to New York in 1904, and by 1910 had become influential enough to form the Clef Club, a society for black musicians which also functioned as an orchestra – the first all-black orchestra in history, and one which only played compositions by black composers. Aside from the usual selection of string, wind and brass instruments (and a large bass drum) the Clef Club also included a remarkable number of mandolins, guitars, banjos and ukuleles, all of which would be strummed in unison to produce an almost deafening melodic rhythm.

clefcluborchestra

Before I get away with myself and call this “jazz” I should mention that it isn’t really. Undoubtedly there is plenty of music which fits the description being played in New Orleans, but at this stage James Reese Europe is not playing it. The perfect example of this is one of the highlights of this mix, Europe’s Society Orchestra’s “Down Home Rag” – what a piece of music this is, a frenzy of strings playing this simple melody with as much speed and energy as they can muster – the sheer unrelenting drive of it is absolutely new. And yet I feel there is something missing there – everything still seems so regimented, there is no space whatsoever for improvisation, soloing, blue notes – and limited recording equipment may have eliminated bass notes, but still, everything being trapped in that narrow frequency-band does make it sort of sound incomplete. Twelve years later a jazz band, The Original Tuxedo Jazz Orchestra, would record the same tune, now re-titled ‘Black Rag’, and it doesn’t really work that well, the pace is altogether too relaxed, you cannot really imagine anyone dancing to it, so perhaps James Reese Europe had it right the first time and it’s me that needs to adapt.

Clef Club and Europe’s Society Orchestra may have been expected to remain within their own world, but by 1912 they were performing at Carnegie Hall, something simply unheard of at the time – and a further gateway opened to the rest of the world in the form of Irene and Vernon Castle, a married couple who are often credited with the popularization of a number of dances, including the foxtrot.

1119px-Vernon_and_Irene_Castle2

Vernon, the son of a pub landlord from Norwich, England met New-Yorker Irene when he moved there in 1906 to further his acting career. Their break came in Paris in 1911, when they demonstrated ragtime dances picked up from largely black dancehalls in the USA, including the “turkey trot.” Returning to the USA in 1913, they took immediate advantage of the burgeoning craze for social dancing by – how else? – finding the hottest ragtime band of the day to go into partnership. Europe’s Society Orchestra performed with them at private parties, at their dance school (the “Castle House”) and their summer club (the “San Souci”). When white orchestras refused to have Europe’s band play alongside them, they would be brought up on stage to be part of the act. The Castles learned all they did from black society, but unlike so many others they managed to credit the originators while bringing their music into the mainstream, even if this meant fanning the flames of moral panic.

World War I ended this story in a few different ways – aside from the social changes due in any war of that size, Vernon Castle would be killed in his work as a test pilot, while James Reese Europe would achieve a ridiculous level of fame after touring France with his 369th Infantry “Hellfighters” Band, only to come to an end in an unfortunate accident soon after. That’s perhaps getting ahead of myself though, for now, let’s enjoy the sounds of 1913.

Tracks

Steve Porter – Alderman Doolin’s Campaign Speech 0:00
Fred Van Eps Trio – Down Home Rag 0:27
Europe’s Society Orchestra – Down Home Rag 1:50
Edward Sterling Wright – ‘Possum 5:18
Prince’s Band – Too Much Mustard 5:42
Europe’s Society Orchestra – Too Much Mustard 7:00
Edward Sterling Wright – When de Co’n Pone’s Hot 9:10
Eddie Morton – Noodle Soup Rag 10:19
Murry K Hill – Seated Around An Oil Stove 11:21
Maurice Burkhart – You Can’t Play Every Instrument In The Orchestra 13:53
Alter Yechiel Karniol – N’kadesh 17:08
Cantor Joseph Rosenblatt – El Mole Rachmim (Fr Titanik) 17:50
Abe Elenkrig’s Yidishe Orchestra – Fon Der Choope 19:14
Frank Lenord – ‘Voice trial’ – Kinetophone Actor Audition 21:30
Agustín Barrios – Aires Andaluces 22:01
María Conesa – El Petit Parisien 1ª Parte 23:31
Samuel Siegel and Roy H. Butin – Waltz 25:23
Harry Lauder – She’s The Lass for Me 26:11
Harry Lauder – Same As His Father Did Before Him 27:50
Billy WIlliams – She Does Like a Little Bit of Scotch 30:23
Roy Spangler – Cannon Ball Rag 32:43
Empire Vaudeville Company – Mrs. Clancy’s boarding house 33:46
George Vintilescu – Chatterbox Rag 33:59
Patrick Conway’s Band – Hungarian Rag 36:15
Bert Williams – How Fried / Borrow From Me 38:19
Claude Debussy – Le Vent Dans La Plaine 42:07
Bob Lett – ‘Voice trial’ – Kinetophone actor audition 42:44
Enrico Caruso – Agnus Dei (Bizet) 43:27
Woodrow Wilson – Address to the American Indians 45:36
Seneca Indians – Funeral Chant 46:09
Seneca Indians – Children’s Chorus 46:48
G.U. Hsu – The English Sound Table 47:30
Venu – Vakulabharanam 47:46
Siegfried Von Schultz – ‘Voice trial’ – Kinetophone actor audition 50:13
Jose Rocabruna – Romanza Expresiva;Tarantela 51:13
Theodore Roosevelt – Address to the Boys’ Progressive League 52:29
Al Jolson – Pullman Porters’ Parade 52:43
Steve Porter & Byron G Harlan – Two Jolly Sailors 54:52
Billy Murray – Bagdad 55:08
Cal Stewart – Uncle Josh Keeps House (part 1) 56:42
Berlin Philharmonic conducted by Arthur Nikisch – Beethoven Symphony No. 5 57:18
Cal Stewart – Uncle Josh Keeps House (part 2) 59:05
Owen J McCormack – When It’s Springtime In Virginia 1:00:02
Rita Villa – Czardas (Verdalle) 1:01:58
Nellie Melba – Mandoline (Debussy) 1:04:00
Alma Gluck & Ephrem Zimbalist – Ave Maria 1:05:22
David Burliuk – House-painter 1:07:57
Demetrius C Dounis mandolin – Souvenir (Drdla) 1:08:23
Arvid Paulson – Bref från Lina Pärson- Till Sin Väninna i Sweden 1:09:27
Sanfrid & Josefina Mustonen – Tukkijoella 1:09:49
Edgar L. Davenport – Lasca 1:11:52
Paulo Gruppe – Rondo (Dvorák) 1:13:08
Autdlârutâ – Duel-song 1:13:31
National Guard Fife and Drum Corps – On Parade 1:13:45
Edgar L. Davenport – Sheridan’s Ride 1:15:26
Fred Van Eps – Frolic of the Coons 1:15:57
Mike Bernard piano solo – Maori (Samoan Dance) 1:17:07
Toots Paka’s Hawaiians – Pulupe 1:18:27
Manhattan Ladies Quartette – Pussy’s in the Well 1:21:58
Ngangela or Cokwe musician (Angola) – cisanzi board lamellophone music 1:23:34
Bert Williams – You Can’t Do Nothing Till Martin Gets Here 1:24:07
Claude Debussy – Doctor Gradus ad Parnassum 1:25:23

1853-1860

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Where does sound begin? What even is sound?

Sound is the name we give to certain frequencies of fluctuating pressure waves which resonate the human eardrum and are able to be perceived by the human brain. Waves fitting this description have existed since the big bang, all of them dissipating forever into space without any decipherable trace.

Towards the end of his life radio pioneer and otherwise shrewd businessman Guglielmo Marconi imagined that he would be able to recover these sounds, given a powerful enough receiver and a device able to filter them. It’s an appealing notion, that we can hear Bach or Julius Caesar or any of the musicians working before music began being written down using full notation (only 500 years ago), but of course such a thing is impossible. As soon as waves are created, they begin to dissipate, intermingle, bounce around and echo – these resonances aren’t just a vital element of every sound we hear; in many ways, they are the sound we hear.

The story of sound, told in sound, has to begin with its earliest capturing. Now, the story you may have heard about the birth of sound recording goes something like this; Thomas Edison, alone in the lab after a hard day’s work in 1877, manages to record a recital of “Mary Had A Little Lamb” onto a wax cylinder. You may have even think you have heard the recording, but I can guarantee you haven’t. The recording in circulation comes from a 1927 recreation for the Golden Jubilee of the Phonograph. The original was lost on a sheet of re-usable tinfoil fifty years earlier.

But it really doesn’t matter. The real start date for us is nearly a quarter of a century earlier, in the studio of French printer and bookseller Édouard-Léon Scott de Martinville. The year was 1853 or 1854, and he was working on engravings for a physiology textbook, in particular a diagram of the internal workings of the human ear. What if, he thought, we could photograph sounds in the way we do images? (photography was a quarter-century old at this point) He began to sketch a device, a way of mimicking the inner workings of the human ear in order to make lines on a piece of paper.

I cover a plate of glass with an exceedingly thin stratum of lampblack. Above I fix an acoustic trumpet with a membrane the diameter of a five franc coin at its small end—the physiological tympanum (eardrum). At its center I affix a stylus—a boar’s bristle a centimeter or more in length, fine but suitably rigid. I carefully adjust the trumpet so the stylus barely grazes the lampblack. Then, as the glass plate slides horizontally in a well formed groove at a speed of one meter per second, one speaks in the vicinity of the trumpet’s opening, causing the membranes to vibrate and the stylus to trace figures.

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The result of this wasn’t a reproducible waveform, of course, such a thing was neither imagined, nor intended. As with Edison later, the primary practical use of this new science was for stenography. Édouard-Léon Scott de Martinville imagined that we could take these sounds and use them to identify single letters, or phonemes (something which is still pretty tricky now) – here is an example of an attempt to match word to sound trace – a truly futile project at the time.

1a-Scott-4

The phonoautogram, as he called it, went through a number of prototypes, with the horn being replaced with a barrel and the sheet of glass replaced by a roll of parchment coated in lampblack (soot) in which markings could be made with a single thread from a feather. It wasn’t until 1859, however, when with the help of Rudolph Koenig he built a reliable version of the machine, and transcribed the sound of a tuning fork, that the recorded sounds become truly decipherable.

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By “decipherable” I mean this – sitting in a vault in Paris for 150 years before the amazing people at Firstsounds.org (David Giovannoni, Patrick Feaster, Richard Martin and Meagan Hennessey) decided that recovering something from these scraps of paper was a project worth pursuing. Re-engineering these tracings into sound waves was a painstaking, technical business, but finally a recording was ready for the world – the sound of (probably) Scott himself singing the French folk song Au Clair de la Lune, recorded on the 9th of April 1860.

The release of this recording, stretching our record of sound back nearly two decades, caused a minor sensation. Here is Charlotte Green on BBC Radio 4 reporting the news – the giggling fit afterwards is due to another guest in the studio saying it sounded like a bee was trapped in their headphones.

The best telling of the story of how we came to have these recordings is from 2012, when the PRI radio show Studio 360 ran a feature on the recovery of the audio. This extended version of a fasinating, comprehensive sub-10-minute primer on the subject.


 

So here it is, our first mix. This is the second version of this mix – the original contained only the 1860 recordings, but since then a number of others have emerged online, including a restored recording of a cornet from 1857.

Tracklisting and details

1. Diapason at 435 Hz–at sequential stages of restoration (1859 Phonautogram) 0:00

This is an example of the tuning fork tone which made the restoration possible. We start from noise, and from the noise, a sound emerges.

2. Notes played on guitar by Adolphe Giacomelli (1853 or 1854) 0:24
3. First ever voice recording captured from the air (1853 or 1854) 0:29

These are some of Scott’s earliest experiments, made on his earliest prototype machine.

4. Phonautography of the voice at a distance (March 1857) 0:30
5. Song of the voice, changes in tone (July 1857) 0:34
6. Song at a Distance (“The Echoes”) (August 17, 1857) 0:51
7. Ashen Pipe (Aug – Oct. 1857) 1:07
8. Stylus of Bristle (Aug – Oct. 1857) 1:35
9. The Sound of a Deep Voice (October 1857) 1:46
10. The Lord’s Prayer (October 1857) 1:58
11. Study of the Timber of the Voice (November 1857) 2:20

These are recordings made on the earlier version of the phonoautogram machine, mostly indecipherable as the speed was not properly regulated. The “Song at a Distance” possibly features the voice of a young girl, and should it later be decoded it may count as the first recorded music.

12. The Timber of the Cornet (December 1857) 2:31

This is now the earliest fully-recovered recording. The soloist is unknown, but the tone of the instrument is unmistakable.

13. Au Clair de la Lune (April 9, 1860) 2:45
14. Shakespeare : Othello excerpt (April 17 1860) 3:13
15. R, I, RI, R, A, RA, RIRA (Will Laugh) (April 18, 1860) 3:21
16. Racine : Phedre (excerpt) (April 19, 1860) 3:27
17. Tasso : Aminta (excerpt) (April – May 1860) 3:44
18. Vocal Scale (May 17, 1860) 3:57
19. Cherubini : Et Incarnatus Est (Sept 1, 1860) 4:12
20. Masse : Fly, Little Bee (September 1860, or later) 4:25

These are the fully-restored recordings from the final version of the phonoautogram. Note the difference in the sound of “Au Clair de la Lune” compared to the radio broadcast. At the time it was believed to be the recording of a young girl – now it is thought to be Scott’s voice.

First Sounds
National Parks article on Edouard-Léon Scott de Martinville
Édouard-Léon Scott de Martinville:An Annotated Discography (pdf)

1912

Santa_Fe_Deluxe_by_Tibbits_1912

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“Why was the phonograph valued so highly as a means of musical progress? To answer this question we must recognise two perceptions widely held in early twentieth-century America: that classical music was a powerful cultural and musical force to which Americans sadly lacked exposure, and that technology, perhaps more than any other agent, could foster positive social change” – Mark Katz, “Capturing Sound”

Musical taste is a battleground populated by fanatics on all sides, and perhaps the worst flashpoint of all is the argument that things ain’t what they used to be. These days this point of view is often characterised as ‘rockism’ – perhaps best defined in a 2004 New York Times article by Kelefa Sanneh

A rockist is someone who reduces rock ‘n’ roll to a caricature, then uses that caricature as a weapon. Rockism means idolizing the authentic old legend (or underground hero) while mocking the latest pop star; lionizing punk while barely tolerating disco; loving the live show and hating the music video; extolling the growling performer while hating the lip-syncher. Over the past decades, these tendencies have congealed into an ugly sort of common sense… …Rockism isn’t unrelated to older, more familiar prejudices — that’s part of why it’s so powerful, and so worth arguing about.The pop star, the disco diva, the lip-syncher, the “awesomely bad” hit maker: could it really be a coincidence that rockist complaints often pit straight white men against the rest of the world?

This is not really a new phenomenon, of course – read papers from the 1960s and you will find cultural commentators of many varieties complaining about the ubiquity of rock music, which to their ears is self-evidently inferior to jazz or classical – and this even has not entirely been consigned to history, take this characteristically pompous 2015 BBC lecture from Roger Scruton, where he whinges about popular music being popular.

The belief that there is a difference between good and bad, meaningful and meaningless, profound and vapid, exciting and banal – this belief was once fundamental to musical education. But it offends against political correctness. Today there is only my taste and yours. The suggestion that my taste is better than yours is elitist, an offence against equality. But unless we teach children to judge, to discriminate, to recognise the difference between music of lasting value and mere ephemera, we give up on the task of education. Judgment is the precondition of true enjoyment, and the prelude to understanding art in all its forms.

Scruton is naturally in favour of the more refined varieties of jazz, and presumably ragtime, but nevertheless his general attitude is exactly that of the gatekeepers of music in 1912, chief among them Thomas Edison. Up until this point, Edison had been resolutely on one side in the format wars – his cylinders against the now-open-source disc recordings. Now, however, he had been persuaded to start making discs, but entirely on his own terms.

Edison_Diamond_Disc_newspaper_ad

It really is something to see these objects. Instead of the standard side-to-side movement, Edison insisted on keeping his hill-and-dale etching technique. With grooves of up to a couple of millimeters deep, the records need to be substantially thicker – 6mm compared to the 1mm you would expect from a shellac disc. That’s the thickness of two pound coins if you’re British, or three nickels for Americans. It’s a substantial, serious object, made for only the highest quality sounds – and what sounds were they? In the words of the demonstration disc sampled in this mix

In as much as this instrument is capable of a real interpretation of music, Mr Edison intends to make it the means of offering all of the world’s finest music to the American people. From month to month, he will present purposeful programs of music, including the works of the great composers, a revival of English opera and historic lyrics, a review of the music of the nations, gems of grand opera, the fine old songs so aptly called ‘heart songs’, the best musical numbers from modern light opera successes, and all of the contemporary popular music

Don’t think for a moment that the last of these means that we are going to be getting the most cutting-edge ragtime dance numbers – for “popular music” here we should read “parlor songs” – perhaps from Tin Pan Alley, but not from its more baudy end. The sort of music you would buy on the printed page, and perform at a social event, performed on disc by trained tenors, backed by an orchestra. Not the music I am interested in putting in this mix, on the whole.

To be fair, however, from the angle of classical music, this commitment to quality of performance and fidelity of sound did lead to some excellent recordings being made. It’s because we have these discs that we can hear very early recordings from Ignacy Jan Paderewski, the most renouned pianist of his day, later president of Poland and representative of the country at the 1919 peace conference in Paris. And then there’s Fritz Kreisler, perhaps the greatest violinist in the world, whose distinctive sound was hugely influential around the world, and whose celebrated rediscoveries of works by Pugnani, Tartini and Vivaldi were later revealed to be his own compositions. “The name changes,” he commented, “the value remains.” These recordings may not reflect the musical revolutions happening out of earshot, but it is nevertheless wonderful to have them in such a condition.

As for the “music of the nations” – well, there is plenty of this, naturally, but not much of it on diamond disc. In Eastern Europe foundational klezmer records are being made. Armenian priest, musicologist, composer, arranger, singer, and choirmaster Komitas is recording devotional vocal works which remain vitally important in the Caucasus to this day.  And let’s not forget Paraguayan Agustín Barrios, one of the most prolific virtuoso guitar players and composers of all time, who is establishing the importance of an instrument we will be hearing a lot more from.

There was plenty to pick from for this mix, then, but less of the popular music I’ve been foregrounding in the last few years. It’s not really a loss, though – the music here can speak for itself as to its value. The real revolution will have to wait a year, but will be all the sweeter for that.

Tracks

Harry E. Humphrey – Edison Diamond Disc Advertising Record (1) 0:00
Empire Military Band – Dill Pickles 0:36
Harry E. Humphrey – Edison Diamond Disc Advertising Record (2) 2:05
Ignace Jan Paderewski – Debussy- Images Set 1 – #1 Reflets Dans L’eau 2:45
Komitas Vardapet – Kele Kele 4:35
Woordrow Wilson – Speech 6:41
Fritz Kreisler – Præludium by J.S. Bach 7:00
Theodore Roosevelt – Liberty of the People 8:41
Naftule Brandwein’s Orchestra – Turkische Yalle Vey Uve (Tanz) 9:55
Choir of Shilda – Chakrulo 13:05
Orchestra Orfeon – Sirba 14:01
Belf’s Rumynski Orkestr – Khosidl 16:03
Alexander Moissi – Prometheus 18:40
Victor Military Band – Stomp Dance 18:54
Ramsay – The Five Bachelors 20:51
James I. Lent – the Ragtime Drummer 20:57
Lovey’s Trinidad String Band – Mango Vert 21:50
Chiquinha Gonzaga – Falena 24:44
Agustín Barrios – Matilde (Mazurka) 26:44
Theodore Roosevelt – The Right of the People to Rule 29:35
Ignace Jan Paderewski – Chopin- Êtude in a Flat, Op. 25,1, ‘Aeolian Harp’ 30:17
Paul Lack – Vive la rosie’re 32:16
Harry Fragson – Other Department, Please 32:38
Al Jolson – Brass Band Ephraham Jones 35:56
Cal Stewart & Steve Porter – Village Gossips 37:46
Prince’s Orchestra – Black Diamond Rag 38:24
Elsie Janis – Fo’ De Lawd’s Sake Play a Waltz 41:10
Billy Murray & Ada Jones – Wedding Glide 42:43
Guido Deiro – Deiro Rag 44:16
Joe Weber & Lew Fields – Mosquito Trust (Mike and Meyer) 45:54
Edison Concert Band – Woodland Serenade 46:27
Koos Speenhoff – Diender Van Het Callandmonument 48:33
Lucien Rigaux – Vous avez quequ’chose 50:05
Ignace Jan Paderewski – Liszt- Trois Çtudes De Concert, S 144, ‘trois Caprices Poçtiques’ – #2 in F Minor, ‘la Leggierezza’ 52:16
Parlow-Falkenstein – Menuett G Flat Major & Valse Bluette 52:48
Weber & Fields – Race Horse Scene 54:55
Frank Curtis – If They Bury Alexander’s Band 55:20
Clarice Mayne – Joshua 58:01
Billy Murray & Heidelberg Quintet – I Want to Love You While the Music’s Playing 1:01:53
Fisk Jubilee Singers – Band of Gideon 1:03:46
Nagaraja Rao – Flute Instrumental- Purna Shadjamam (Krithi) 1:05:24
Anon – Yangzi River Boat Rowing Song 1:07:14
Unknown Artist – Tar Solo 1:07:52
Kanape – Entertaining Song 1:10:11
Anon (New Guinea ) – Timbunke Vocalist W Interlocking Flutes 2 1:10:42
Jenab Damavandi – Bidad 1:10:57
Gesang Des Zauberarztes – ??? 1:11:21

1911

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Listening chronologically to music in this way, one of the things I have noticed is that there are sudden lurches forward in certain years. 1911, for all its quality, is not one of those years. Most of what you can hear in this mix sounds pretty much like the music of 1909 or 1907, but there are a few things here which seem completely out of their time, premonitions of aspects of music from the 1920s. A little later on, the growth in record labels and home consumption of music will mean that new trends catch on like wildfire, but for now these novelties will fade comfortably back into the background until they finally find their moments.

Young Sophie Tucker

Sophie Tucker was born Sofya Kalish in 1886 to a Jewish family in Tulchyn, Podolia Governorate, Russian Empire, now Vinnytsia Oblast, Ukraine. She emigrated to the USA as a baby, and grew up in Boston and Hartford, Connecticut, where her parents opened a restaurant. At a young age, between serving customers, she started singing for tips. In 1903, she eloped with Louis Tuck, a beer cart driver, but in 1905, shortly after their son was born, the couple separated. Tucker found jobs in cafés and beer gardens, singing for food and tips from the customers and in 1907 made her first theatre appearance. Always a large woman, she was at first made to wear blackface during performance, as she did not fit the mold of the waifish white girl singer, but later managed to lose the makeup, telling her audience “you all can see I’m a white girl. Well, I’ll tell you something more: I’m not Southern. I’m a Jewish girl and I just learned this Southern accent doing a blackface act for two years.” Her first recording, “Some of These Days” on Edison Records became her signature tune and was later the title of her autobiography. Calling it “the first blues song” would be complete hyperbole, and yet it sounds more like the barrelhouse mamas of the early 1920s than anything of its time. Female vocalists have up to this point been an exception (their voices allegedly not coming through as well on a wax cylinder) and reedy-voiced Victorian vaudeville singers like Ada Jones are hardly standard-bearers for the near future. Sophie Tucker, however, a white woman from the north, really is a sea change towards the black music which will eventually sweep away most of what we hear in 1911.

Alexander's Ragtime Band

Alexander’s Ragtime Band is more interesting perhaps for what it isn’t than what it is. Despite the name, it isn’t a ragtime song at all, more a standard Tin Pan Alley vaudeville piece, which wouldn’t particularly sound out of place in 1900. A good case could even be made for calling it a “coon song” – ‘Alexander’ being the kind of old-fashioned upworld name which would allegedly be comical if given to the leader of a low-class black musician (if this sounds unlikely, bear in mind that this was pretty standard content.) It was Irving Berlin’s first huge hit – and while it wasn’t ragtime it did as much for the genre as it did for Berlin – from this point on songwriters seem to feel that making references to ragtime is more likely to make a song a hit,. How this relates to the ragtime dance band craze of a year or two later is hard to say, but it certainly made it famous around the world. Later on the song became something of a jazz standard, its lack of syncopation allowing spaces for expression and improvisation, and hit versions from Bessie Smith, Louis Armstrong, Bing Crosby, Ella Fitzgerald, Ray Charles, Judy Garland and many others would make it perhaps the song from this era which lived longest in creative and popular consciousness.

bungaloos

According to one of those enduring myths of Jazz, Louis Armstrong invented scat singing on February 26th, 1926, when, during the recording of ‘Heebie Jeebies’, his sheet music fell off the stand and he was forced to improvise a vocal solo without lyrics. This story is roundly refuted by the existence of “King of the Bungaloos,” a fairly odd humorous vaudeville recording by a jobbing performer called Gene Greene from Chicago. The innovation was not particularly noted at the time. It was long after Greene’s death in 1930 that the incongruity of its very existence came to light, and for this reason the origins of the performance are unclear, though some say he picked it up from Ben Harney, a songwriter who billed himself as “The King of Ragtime.” While Harney did more than anyone to popularise the genre, he seems to be more of a borrower than a creator, so presumably scat singing came from the same well of undocumented black culture that ragtime did.

Tracks

Sophie Tucker – Some of These Days 0:00
Arthur Pryor’s Band – Canhanibalmo Rag 2:08
Collins & Harlan – Alexander’s Ragtime Band 3:47
Six Brown Brothers – The Bullfrog and the Coon 6:41
Ada Jones & Steve Porter – the Piano Tuner 7:32
Ada Jones – Grand Baby Or a Baby Grand 10:41
Gene Greene – King of the Bungaloos 12:20
Fisk University Jubilee Singer – The Old Tunes / I Know the Lord Laid His Hands 14.52
Ignace Jan Paderewski – Chopin- Nocturne in F, Op. 15,1 17:56
Agustín Barrios – Milonga 19:45
Po Sein and Ma Kyin U. – Romantic Duet 22:26
Mingala Ma Thein Nyunt, Ma Sein Thin, Ma Sein Thi a Ngyeint, Lay Pyay Htoh Lu Byet Ka, Ma Sein Hkaw – Welcoming Ma Thein Nyunt 23:34
Surat Band (Mr. Razak’s) – Bagesri 26:29
Uncredited Chinese Wedding Ensemble – Pengantin Berarak 27:57
George Bastow – Captain Gingah O T 28:58
George P. Watson – Emmett’s Favorite Yodel , Alpine Specialty 30:18
Manuel O. Campoamor – Joaquina 32:36
Manuelita Tejedor ‘La Preciosilla’ – Chiqui Chiqui 33:37
Flora Gobbi Con Orquesta – Minguito 34:16
Banda Municipal De La Ciudad De Bs as – a Mí…Manís! 35:38
Venetian Instrumental Trio – Dear Heart 37:56
Orquesta Tipica Genaro Esposito – Felicia 38:17
Bransby Williams – The Green Eye of the Little Yellow God 39:45
Joseph Solinski – Rum Nische Fantasien (Pt. 1) 40:02
Yangos Psamatyalis – Zmirneikomanes 41:06
Ma Kyin U, Ma Gyee, and Duck Oh – the Crying Princess 42:04
S. Kosh – Doina (Pt. 2) 43:25
Al Jolson – That Haunting Melody 44:42
Tom McNaughton With Orchestra – The Three Trees (Part 1) 46:18
Fred Van Eps – Red Pepper (A Spicy Rag) 46:54
Tom McNaughton With Orchestra – The Three Trees (Part 2) 49:05
Eugene Jaudas National Promenade Band – Virginia Reel 49:59
Dolly Connolly – Red Rose Rag 52:11
Maurice Burkhart – Ragtime Violin 54:15
Pipe Major Forsyth and Drums – Hundrerd Pipers 55:41
Cal Stewart – Fourth of July at Punkin Center 56:49
Arthur Collins – Chicken Reel 57:30
Harry Champion – I’m Henery the Eighth, I Am 58:34
Paul Lack – La Coca Kola 59:28
Ignace Jan Paderewski – Paderewski- Humoresques De Concert, Op. 14 – #1 Minuet in G 1:00:51
Enrico Caruso – Core ‘ Ngrato (Catarii Catarii) 1:02:51