Elsewhere in 1921

January 2 - The De Young Museum opens in Golden Gate Park, San Francisco

January 2 – The De Young Museum opens in Golden Gate Park, San Francisco

January 20 – British K-class submarine HMS K5 sinks in the English Channel. All 56 on board die.

January 21 – The film The Kid, written, produced, directed by and starring Charlie Chaplin, with Jackie Coogan, is released in the United States.

February 12 – The Democratic Republic of Georgia is invaded by forces of Bolshevist Russia.

February 21 – Rezā Khan and Zia’eddin Tabatabaee stage a coup d’état in Iran.

February 28 – The Kronstadt rebellion is initiated by sailors of the Soviet Navy’s Baltic Fleet.

March 4 – Warren G. Harding is sworn in as the 29th President of the United States.

March 8 – Spanish Premier Eduardo Dato e Iradier is assassinated while exiting the parliament building in Madrid.

March 13 – The Russian White Army captures Mongolia from China. Roman von Ungern-Sternberg declares himself ruler.

April 11 – The Emirate of Transjordan is created, with Abdullah I as emir.

May 1–7 – Riots at Jaffa, Mandatory Palestine result in 47 Jewish and 48 Arab deaths.

May 25 – The Irish Republican Army occupies and burns The Custom House in Dublin. Five IRA men are killed, and over 80 are captured by the British Army.

May 31–June 1 – Mobs of white residents attack black residents and businesses in Tulsa, Oklahoma. Between 100 and 300 are killed.

June 28 – The Constitutional Assembly of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes passes the Vidovdan Constitution, despite a boycott of the vote by the communists, and Croat and Slovene parties.

July 1 – The Communist Party of China (CPC) is founded.

July 11 – The Red Army captures Mongolia from the White Army, and establishes the Mongolian People’s Republic.

July 21 – At The Battle of Annual, Spanish troops are dealt a crushing defeat, at the hands of Abd el-Krim.

July 29 – Adolf Hitler becomes Führer of the Nazi Party.

August 23 – King Faisal I of Iraq is crowned in Baghdad.

August 24 – R38-class airship ZR-2 explodes on her fourth test flight near Kingston upon Hull, England, killing 44 of the 49 Anglo-American crew on board.

September 7 – In Atlantic City, New Jersey, the first Miss America Pageant is held.

September 13 – White Castle hamburger restaurant opens in Wichita, Kansas, the foundation of the world’s first fast food chain.

September 21 – The Oppau explosion occurs at BASF’s nitrate factory in Oppau, Germany. 500–600 are killed.

October 13 – The Treaty of Kars is signed between Turkey and the Soviet Socialist Republics of Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia, establishing the boundaries of the south Caucasus.

October 19 – The ‘Bloody Night’ (Noite Sangrenta) massacre in Lisbon claims the lives of Portuguese Prime-Minister António Granjo and other politicians.

November 9 – The National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista or PNF) is founded in Italy.

November 11 – During an Armistice Day ceremony at Arlington National Cemetery, the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier is dedicated by Warren G. Harding, President of the United States.

November – Hyperinflation is rampant in Germany, where 263 marks are now needed to buy a single American dollar, more than 20 times greater than the 12 marks needed in April 1919.

December 6 – The Anglo-Irish Treaty establishing the Irish Free State is signed in London.

December 13 – In the Four-Power Treaty on Insular Possessions, Japan, the United States, United Kingdom, and France agree to recognize the status quo in the Pacific.

December 23 – Visva-Bharati College is founded by Rabindranath Tagore in Santiniketan, Bengal Presidency, British India.

Elsewhere in 1920

January 2 – The first Red Scare in the United States – 4025 suspected communists and anarchists are arrested and held without trial in several cities

January 7 – In the Russian Civil War, the forces of Russian White Admiral Alexander Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk – the Great Siberian Ice March ensues

January 16 – Prohibition in the United States begins, with the Eighteenth Amendment to the Constitution coming into effect

February 2 – The Tartu Peace Treaty is signed, ending the Estonian War of Independence and recognizing the independence of both the Republic of Estonia and the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic

February 7 – Admiral Kolchak and Viktor Pepelyayev are executed by firing squad near Irkutsk

February 17 – A woman named Anna Anderson tries to commit suicide in Berlin, and is taken to a mental hospital, where she claims she is Grand Duchess Anastasia of Russia

February 24 – Adolf Hitler presents his National Socialist Program in Munich to the German Workers’ Party (Deutsche Arbeiterpartei), which renames itself as the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei)

March 7 – The Syrian National Congress proclaims Syria independent, with Faisal I of Iraq as king

March 10 – The world’s first peaceful establishment of a social democratic government takes place in Sweden, as Hjalmar Branting takes over as Prime Minister

March 13–17 – Wolfgang Kapp and Walther von Lüttwitz’s Kapp Putsch (an attempted coup in Germany) briefly ousts the Weimar Republic government from Berlin, but fails due to public resistance and a general strike

March 15 – The Ruhr Red Army, a communist army 60,000 men strong, is formed in Germany

March 15–16 – Constantinople is occupied by British Empire forces, acting for the Allied Powers against the Turkish National Movement

March 19 – The United States Senate refuses to ratify the Treaty of Versailles

March 25 – British recruits to the Royal Irish Constabulary begin to arrive in Ireland. They become known from their improvised uniforms as the ‘Black and Tans’

April 4 – Violence erupts between Arab and Jewish residents in Jerusalem – 9 are killed, 216 injured

April 20 – The 1920 Summer Olympics open in Antwerp, Belgium. The Olympic symbols of five interlocking rings and the associated flag are first displayed at the games

April 23 – The Grand National Assembly of Turkey is founded by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, in Ankara. It denounces the government of Sultan Mehmed VI, and announces a temporary constitution

May 2 – The first game of Negro National League baseball is played in Indianapolis

May 16 – Over 30,000 people attend the Canonization of Joan of Arc in Rome

May 20 – President Venustiano Carranza of Mexico arrives in San Antonio Tlaxcalantongo, where he is shot and killed by the troops of Rodolfo Herrero

June 4 – With the Treaty of Trianon, peace is restored between the Allied Powers and Hungary, which loses 72% of its territory

June 22 – In the Greek Summer Offensive, Greece attacks Turkish troops

July 19 – The Second Congress of the Communist International begins in Saint Petersburg and Moscow

July 24 – The French defeat the Syrian army at the Battle of Maysalun, occupy Damascus, and depose Faisal I of Syria as king

August 10 – Ottoman Sultan Mehmed VI’s representatives sign the Treaty of Sèvres with the Allied Powers, confirming arrangements for the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire

August 11 – Bolshevik Russia recognizes independent Latvia

August 19–25 – The Poles in Upper Silesia rise up against the Germans.

August 20 – The first commercial radio station in the United States, 8MK, begins operations in Detroit

August 26 – The Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution is passed, guaranteeing women’s suffrage

September 16 – A bomb in a horse wagon explodes in front of the J. P. Morgan building in New York City, killing 38 and injuring 400

October 9 – In the Polish–Lithuanian War, Polish troops take Vilnius

November 2 – In the US presidential election, Republican Warren G. Harding defeats Democrat James M. Cox and Socialist Eugene V. Debs

November 13 – The White Army’s last units and civilian refugees are evacuated from the Crimea on board 126 ships

November 15 – In Geneva, the first assembly of the League of Nations is held

November 21 – The Irish Republican Army shoot dead 14 British undercover agents in Dublin. Later that day in retaliation, the Royal Irish Constabulary open fire on a crowd at a Gaelic Football match, killing 14

December 1 – The Mexican Revolution ends with a new regime coming to power, which couples with the end of the Old West

December 11 – British forces set fire to 5 acres of the centre of Cork, Ireland, including the City Hall, in reprisal attacks, after a British auxiliary is killed in a guerilla ambush

December 16 – An 8.6 Richter scale Haiyuan earthquake causes a landslide in Gansu Province, China, killing 180,000

December 22 – The 8th Congress of Soviets of the Russian SFSR adopts the GOELRO plan, the major plan of the economical development of the country

Elsewhere in 1919

January 1 – HMY Iolaire sinks off the coast of the Hebrides, 201 people, mostly servicemen returning home to Lewis and Harris, are killed.

January 1 – The Czechoslovak Legions occupy the Pressburg (now Bratislava), enforcing its incorporation into the new republic of Czechoslovakia.

January 3 – The Faisal–Weizmann Agreement is signed by Emir Faisal and Zionist leader Chaim Weizmann, for Arab–Jewish cooperation in the development of Jewish and Palestinann homelands

January 5 – A communist uprising is attempted by the Spartacist League in Berlin

January 5 – The German Workers’ Party, predecessor of the Nazi Party, is formed by the merger of The Committee of Independent Workmen with The Political Workers’ Circle.

January 6 – Theodore Roosevelt, 26th President of the United States, dies in his sleep at the age of 60

January 7 – The Tragic Week in Argentina, an anarchist uprising in Buenos Aires, begins, it is later suppressed by official forces

January 15 – A wave of molasses released from an exploding storage tank sweeps through Boston, Massachusetts, killing 33 and injuring 150.

January 15 – Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht are murdered, following the Spartacist uprising.

January 16 – The Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, authorizing Prohibition, is ratified.

January 18 – The Paris Peace Conference opens in France, with delegates from 27 nations attending for meetings at the Palace of Versailles.

January 31 – Battle of George Square – The British Army is called in to deal with riots, during negotiations over working hours in Glasgow, Scotland.

February 5 – United Artists (UA) is incorporated by D.W. Griffith, Charlie Chaplin, Mary Pickford and Douglas Fairbanks.

February 11 – Friedrich Ebert is elected the first President of Germany (Reichspräsident), by the Weimar National Assembly.

February 14 – The Polish–Soviet War begins, with the Battle of Bereza Kartuska.

February 24 – Four days after supressing an uprising, the Estonian government celebrate their first independence day

March 1 – The March 1st Movement against Japanese colonial rule in Korea is formed.

April 5 – The Pinsk massacre in Poland – 35 Jews are killed without trial, after being accused of Bolshevism.

April 10 – Mexican Revolution leader Emiliano Zapata is ambushed and shot dead in Morelos.

April 13 – The Amritsar Massacre – British and Gurkha troops massacre 379 Sikhs at Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar, in the Punjab.

May 4 – The League of Red Cross Societies is formed in Paris.

May 4 – The May Fourth Movement erupts in China as a result of the decision at the Paris Peace Conference to transfer former German concessions in Jiaozhou Bay to Japan rather than return sovereign authority to China.

May 6 – The Third Anglo-Afghan War begins – after a stalemate, Britain concede and settle on pre-war boundaries.

May 19 – Mustafa Kemal Atatürk lands at Samsun on the Anatolian Black Sea coast, marking the start of the Turkish War of Independence.

June 21 – Admiral Ludwig von Reuter scuttles the German fleet interned at Scapa Flow, Scotland

June 25 – In the Russian Civil War, The White Volunteer Army capture Kharkiv, while Red Army forces take Perm.

June 28 – The Treaty of Versailles is signed, formally ending World War I.

July 20 – The Red Army captures the city of Ekaterinburg in the Ural mountains from the White rule of Admiral Alexander Kolchak.

July 21 – The dirigible Wingfoot Air Express catches fire over downtown Chicago. Two passengers, one aircrewman and ten people on the ground are killed.

July 27 – The Chicago Race Riot of 1919 begins when a white man throws stones at a group of four black teens on a raft.

August 4 – The Romanian army occupies Budapest.

September 10 – The Treaty of Saint-Germain is signed, ending World War I with Austria-Hungary and declaring that the latter’s empire is to be dissolved

September 12 – Gabriele D’Annunzio, with his entourage, marches into Fiume and convinces Italian troops to join him.

October 2 – President of the United States Woodrow Wilson suffers a serious stroke, rendering him an invalid for the remainder of his life.

November 9 – Felix the Cat debuts in Feline Follies.

November 11 – In The Russian Civil War, The Northwestern Army of General Nikolai Yudenich retreats to Estonia and is disarmed.

November 30 – Health officials declare the global ‘Spanish’ flu pandemic has ceased.

December 1 – American-born Nancy Astor becomes the first woman to take her seat in the UK House of Commons, having become the second to be elected on November 28.

December 4 – The French Opera House in New Orleans, Louisiana is destroyed by fire.

December 21 – Following the first ‘Red Scare’, The United States deports 249 people, including Emma Goldman, to Russia on the USAT Buford.

December 26 – American baseball player Babe Ruth is traded by the Boston Red Sox to the New York Yankees for $125,000, the largest sum ever paid for a player at this time.

Elsewhere in 1918

January 8 – Woodrow Wilson delivers his Fourteen Points speech

January 27 – The Finnish Civil War begins with the Battle of Kämärä

February 1 – Austrian sailors in the Gulf of Cattaro, led by two Czech Socialists, mutiny

February 6 – The Representation of the People Act gives most women over 30 the vote in the UK

February 16 – The Council of Lithuania adopts the Act of Independence of Lithuania, declaring Lithuania’s independence from Russia

February 19 – The Capture of Jericho by the Egyptian Expeditionary Force begins the British occupation of the Jordan Valley

February 19-25 – The Imperial Russian Navy evacuates Tallinn through thick ice, over the Gulf of Finland

February 24 – Estonia declares its independence from Russia, after seven centuries of foreign rule. German forces capture Tallinn the following day

March 3 – The Central Powers and Russia sign the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, ending Russia’s involvement in WW1

March 8 – The Battle of Tell ‘Asur is launched by units of the British Army’s Egyptian Expeditionary Force against Ottoman defences

March 21 – The Spring Offensive by the German Army begins with Operation Michael – there are nearly 20,000 British Army dead on the first day

March 23 – In London at the Wood Green Empire, Chung Ling Soo (William E. Robinson, U.S.-born magician) dies during his trick, where he is supposed to catch two bullets when one of them perforates his lung

March 23 – The giant German cannon, the ‘Paris Gun’, begins to shell Paris from 114 km away

March 26 – Dr. Marie Stopes publishes her influential book Married Love in the U.K

March 27 – The First Battle of Amman is launched by units of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force

March 30 – Bolshevik and Armenian Revolutionary Federation forces suppress a Muslim revolt in Baku, Azerbaijan, resulting in up to 30,000 deaths

April 5 – Sālote succeeds as Queen of Tonga – she will remain on the throne until her death in 1965

April 21 – Manfred von Richthofen, ‘The Red Baron’, dies in combat at Morlancourt Ridge near the Somme River

April 23 – A general strike is held in Ireland against conscription

April 23 – The British Navy raids Zeebrugge and Ostend, attempting to seal off the German U-boat bases there

April 28 – Gavrilo Princip, assassin of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, dies in Terezin, Austria-Hungary, after three years in prison

May 11 – The Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus is officially established

May 26 – Georgia declares its independence as the Democratic Republic of Georgia.

May 28 – Armenia and Azerbaijan declare their independence as the First Republic of Armenia and the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic

May 29 – The Battle of Sardarabad concludes with defending Armenian forces victorious over the Ottomans.

June – The ‘Spanish ‘flu’ becomes pandemic. Over 30 million people die in the following 6 months.

June 1 – The Battle of Belleau Wood begins.

June 10 – Austro-Hungarian dreadnought battleship SMS Szent István is sunk by two Italian MAS motor torpedo boats off the Dalmatian coast.

June 12 – Grand Duke Michael of Russia is killed, becoming the first of the Romanovs to be executed by the Bolsheviks.

July 3 – The Siberian Intervention is launched by the Allies, to extract the Czechoslovak Legion from the Russian Civil War

July 4 – Mehmed VI succeeds as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire on the death of his half-brother Mehmed V

July 9 – In Nashville, Tennessee, an inbound local train collides with an outbound express, killing 101.

July 12 – Japanese battleship Kawachi blows up off Tokuyama, killing at least 621

July 15 – The Second Battle of the Marne begins near the River Marne, with a German attack

July 17 – By order of the Bolshevik Party, Tsar Nicholas II, his wife Alexandra Feodorovna, their children, Olga, Tatiana, Maria, Anastasia, Alexei and retainers are shot at the Ipatiev House, in Ekaterinburg, Russia.

August 2 – British anti-Bolshevik forces occupy Arkhangelsk in North Russia.

August 8 – British, Canadian and Australian troops begin a string of almost continuous victories, the ‘Hundred Days Offensive’, with an 8-mile push through the German front lines at the Battle of Amiens, taking 12,000 prisoners.

August 21 – The Second Battle of the Somme begins

August 27 – U.S. Army forces skirmish against Mexican Carrancistas and their German advisors at Nogales, Arizona, in the only battle of WWI fought on United States soil.

September 3 – The Bolshevik government of Russia publishes the first official announcement of the Red Terror, a period of repression against political opponents, as an ‘Appeal to the Working Class’ in the newspaper Izvestia

September 4 –The Battle of Mont Saint-Quentin concludes with the Australian Corps breaking the German line.

September 15–18 – At The Battle of Dobro Pole, The Allied Army of the Orient defeats Bulgarian defenders.

September 19 – The British Army launches the Battle of Megiddo, an attack in the Judaean Mountains, which breaks the Ottoman front line stretching from the Mediterranean coast to the Judaean Mountains.

September 26 – The Meuse-Argonne Offensive begins, the largest and bloodiest operation of the war for the American Expeditionary Forces.

September 27 – The Battle of the Canal du Nord, launched by British and Empire forces, continues the advance towards the Hindenburg Line.

September 29 – The Battle of St Quentin Canal begins – Allied forces advance towards the Hindenburg Line

October 3 – Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany appoints Max von Baden Chancellor of Germany.

October 7 – The Regency Council declares Polish independence from the German Empire, and demands that Germany cede the Polish provinces of Poznań, Upper Silesia and Polish Pomerania

October 8–10 – British and Canadian troops take Cambrai from the Germans and the First and Third British Armies break through the Hindenburg Line

October 18 – The Washington Declaration proclaims the independent Czechoslovak Republic

October 31 – The Hungarian government terminates the personal union with Austria, officially dissolving the Austro-Hungarian Empire

November 1 – The Polish–Ukrainian War is inaugurated, by the proclamation of the West Ukrainian People’s Republic in Galicia, with a capital at Lwów.

November 1 – The worst rapid transit accident in world history occurs under the intersection of Malbone Street and Flatbush Avenue, in Brooklyn, New York City, with at least 93 dead

November 3 – Austria-Hungary enters an armistice with the Allies, at the Villa Giusti in Padua

November 9 – Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany abdicates and chooses to live in exile in the Netherlands. The German Republic is proclaimed by Philipp Scheidemann in Berlin, on the Reichstag balcony

November 11 – Emperor Charles I of Austria gives up his absolute power, but does not abdicate

November 11 – Germany signs an armistice agreement with the Allies, between 5:12 AM and 5:20 AM, in Marshal Foch’s railroad car, in the Forest of Compiègne in France. It becomes official on the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month

November 21 – Polish troops, volunteers and freed criminals massacre at least 320 Ukrainian Christians and Jews in Lwów, Galicia

November 28 – The Red Army invades Estonia, starting the Estonian War of Independence

December 1 – Following the March 27 incorporation of Bessarabia and Bucovina, Transylvania unites with the Kingdom of Romania

December 1 – Iceland regains independence, but remains in personal union with the King of Denmark, who also becomes the King of Iceland until 1944

December 28 – Sinn Féin wins wins 73 of the 105 seats in the Irish General Election. Countess Constance Markievicz, while detained in Holloway Prison (London), becomes the first woman elected to (but does not take her seat in) the British House of Commons.

Elsewhere in 1917

January 9 – At the Battle of Rafa, the last substantial Ottoman Army garrison on the Sinai Peninsula is captured by the Egyptian Expeditionary Force

January 11 – Unknown saboteurs set off the Kingsland Explosion, one of the events leading to United States involvement in WWI

January 19 – A blast at a munitions factory in London kills 73 and injures over 400

January 25 – British armed merchantman SS Laurentic is sunk by mines off Lough Swilly (Ireland), with the loss of 354 of the 475 aboard

February 13 – Mata Hari is arrested in Paris for spying

February 24 – US ambassador to the UK Walter Hines Page is shown the intercepted Zimmermann Telegram, in which Germany offers to give the American Southwest back to Mexico

March 8 – The February Revolution begins in Russia – Women calling for bread in Petrograd start riots, which spontaneously spread throughout the city

March 15 – Emperor Nicholas II of Russia abdicates his throne and his son’s claims. This is considered to be the end of the Russian Empire, after 196 years

March 26 – At the First Battle of Gaza, British Egyptian Expeditionary Force troops virtually encircle the Gaza garrison, but are then ordered to withdraw, leaving the city to the Ottoman defenders

April 6 – The United States declares war on Germany.

April 9 – At The Battle of Arras, British Empire troops make a significant advance on the Western Front but are unable to achieve a breakthrough.

April 17 – The Egyptian Expeditionary Force begins the Second Battle of Gaza, a frontal attack on Ottoman defenses, which results in 10,000 casualties, and the beginning of the Stalemate in Southern Palestine.

June 7 – The Battle of Messines opens with the British Army detonating 19 ammonal mines under the German lines, killing 10,000 in the deadliest deliberate non-nuclear man-made explosion in history.

July – The first Cottingley Fairies photographs are taken in Yorkshire, England, apparently depicting fairies (a hoax not admitted by the child creators until 1981).

July 6 – At the Battle of Aqaba, Arabian troops, led by T. E. Lawrence, capture Aqaba from the Ottoman Empire.

July 28 – The Silent Parade is organized by the NAACP in New York City, to protest the East St. Louis riot of July 2, as well as lynchings in Tennessee and Texas

July 31 – The Battle of Passchendaele – Allied offensive operations commence in Flanders.

August 18 – The Great Thessaloniki Fire in Greece destroys 32% of the city, leaving 70,000 homeless.

September 23 – Leon Trotsky is elected Chairman of the Petrograd Soviet.

October 12 – At the First Battle of Passchendaele, Allies fail to take a German defensive position, with the biggest loss of life in a single day for New Zealand, over 800 of whose men are killed, roughly 0.1% of the nation’s population

October 13 – The Miracle of the Sun is reported at Fátima, Portugal.

October 24 – At the Battle of Caporetto Austrian and German forces penetrate Italian lines as far south as the Piave River.

October 26 – Brazil declares war against the Central Powers.

October 31 – At the Battle of Beersheba, the British XX Corps and Desert Mounted Corps (Egyptian Expeditionary Force) attack and capture Beersheba from Ottoman forces, ending the stalemate in Southern Palestine.

November 2 – British Foreign Secretary Arthur Balfour makes the Balfour Declaration, proclaiming British support for the “establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people”

November 6 – Second Battle of Passchendaele – After 3 months of fierce fighting, Canadian forces take Passchendaele in Belgium. The battle concludes on November 10

November 7 – The British Army XXI Corps occupies Gaza, after the Ottoman garrison withdraws.

November 7 – The workers of the Petrograd Soviet in Russia, led by the Bolshevik Party and leader Vladimir Lenin, storm the Winter Palace and successfully destroy the Kerensky Provisional Government.

November 7 – Women win the right to vote in New York State.

November 13 – Battle of Mughar Ridge – The Egyptian Expeditionary Force attacks retreating Yildirim Army Group forces, resulting in the capture of 10,000 Ottoman prisoners, 100 guns and 50 miles of Palestine territory.

November 15 – ‘Night of Terror’ in the United States – Influential suffragettes from the Silent Sentinels are deliberately subjected to physical assaults by guards while imprisoned.

November 15 – The Parliament of Finland passes another ‘Sovereignty Act’, dissolving Russian sovereignty over Finland and effectively declaring Finland independent.

November 17 – US Navy destroyers USS Fanning and USS Nicholson capture Imperial German Navy U-boat SM U-58 off the south-west coast of Ireland, the first combat action in which U.S. ships take a submarine (which is then scuttled).

December 9 – The British Egyptian Expeditionary Force accepts the surrender of Jerusalem by the mayor, Hussein al-Husayni, following the effective defeat of the Ottoman Empire’s Yildirim Army Group.

Elsewhere in 1916

January 1 – The British Royal Army Medical Corps carries out the first successful blood transfusion, using blood that had been stored and cooled.

January 10 – In the Erzurum Offensive, Russia inflicts a defeat on the Ottoman Empire.

January 13 – Ottoman Empire forces defeat the Allied British in the Battle of Wadi.

February 11 – Emma Goldman is arrested for lecturing on birth control in the United States.

February 12 – At The Battle of Salaita Hill, South African and other British Empire troops fail to take a German East African defensive position.

February 21 – The Battle of Verdun begins in France.

March 8 – Pancho Villa leads 500 Mexican raiders in an attack against Columbus, New Mexico, killing 12 U.S. soldiers. A garrison of the U.S. 13th Cavalry Regiment fights back and drives them away.

March 24 – French ferry SS Sussex is torpedoed by SM UB-29 in the English Channel, with at least 50 killed, including the composer Enrique Granados.

April 11 – The Egyptian Expeditionary Force begins the occupation of the Sinai Peninsula.

April 24 – The Easter Rising begins in Ireland. Members of the Irish Republican Brotherhood proclaim an Irish Republic, and the Irish Volunteers and Irish Citizen Army occupy the General Post Office and other buildings in Dublin.

April 27 – The 47th Brigade, 16th (Irish) Division at Hulluch in France is decimated, in one of the most heavily concentrated German gas attacks of the war.

April 29 – The Easter Rising ends, as republican commanders issue an order for all companies to surrender.

April 29 – The Siege of Kut ends with the surrender of British forces to the Ottoman Empire, at Kut-al-Amara on the Tigris in Basra Vilayet.

May 16 – Britain and France conclude the secret Sykes–Picot Agreement, which is to divide Arab areas of the Ottoman Empire into French and British spheres of influence.

May 16 – United States Marines invade the Dominican Republic.

May 31 – The Battle of Jutland, between the British Royal Navy and the Imperial German Navy, the war’s only large-scale clash of battleships, begins – the result is inconclusive.

June 4 – The Brusilov Offensive, the height of Russian operations in the war, begins with their breaking through Austro-Hungarian lines.

June 5 – HMS Hampshire sinks, having hit a mine off the Orkney Islands, Scotland, with Lord Kitchener aboard.

June 10 – The Arab Revolt against the Ottoman Empire is formally declared by Hussein bin Ali, Sharif of Mecca.

July 1 – On the first day of The Battle of The Somme around 30,000 British, French and German soldiers are killed

July 15 – Battle of Delville Wood – 766 men from the South African Brigade are killed, in South Africa’s biggest loss during the First World War.

July 29 – In Ontario, Canada, a lightning strike ignites a forest fire that destroys the towns of Cochrane and Matheson, killing 233.

July 30 – German agents cause the Black Tom explosion in Jersey City, New Jersey, an act of sabotage destroying an ammunition depot and killing at least 7 people.

August 5 – At the Battle of Romani British Imperial troops secure victory over a joint Ottoman-German force.

September 6 – The first true self-service grocery store, Piggly Wiggly, is founded in Memphis, Tennessee, by Clarence Saunders.

September 11 – A mechanical failure causes the central span of the Quebec Bridge to crash into the Saint Lawrence River for the second time, killing 13 workers.

September 13 – Mary, a circus elephant, is hanged in the town of Erwin, Tennessee for killing her handler, Walter ‘Red’ Eldridge.

September 15 – Battle of Flers–Courcelette – significant for the first use of the tank in warfare and for the debut of the Canadian and New Zealand Divisions in The Somme.

September 27 – Iyasu V of Ethiopia is deposed in a palace coup, in favour of his aunt Zewditu.

October 21 – Friedrich Adler shoots and kills Count Karl von Stürgkh, Minister-President of Austria.

November 5 – An armed confrontation in Everett, Washington, between local authorities and members of the Industrial Workers of the World results in seven deaths.

November 7 – In The U.S. presidential election, Democratic President Woodrow Wilson narrowly defeats Republican Charles E. Hughes.

November 7 – Republican Jeannette Rankin of Montana becomes the first woman elected to the United States House of Representatives.

November 18 – After 5 months and nearly half a million British casualties, BEF commander Douglas Haig calls off the Battle of the Somme.

November 21 – Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria dies of pneumonia at the Schönbrunn Palace, Vienna, aged 86, after a reign of 68 years and is succeeded by his grandnephew Charles I.

November 23 – Bucharest, the capital of Romania, is occupied by troops of the Central Powers.

December 12 – ‘White Friday’ in the Dolomites – 100 avalanches bury 18,000 Austrian and Italian soldiers.

December 18 – The Battle of Verdun ends in France with German troops defeated.

December 22 – The British Sopwith Camel aircraft makes its maiden flight. It is designed to counter the German Fokker aircraft.

December 30 – The mystic Grigori Rasputin is murdered in Saint Petersburg.

Elsewhere in 1915

The Centuries of Sound episode for 1915 is now up for Patreon subscribers – get early access and my radio podcast where I discuss the music at https://www.patreon.com/centuriesofsound

January 1 – The Royal Navy battleship HMS Formidable is sunk off Lyme Regis, by an Imperial German Navy U-boat, with the loss of 547 crew.

January 13 – The vezzano earthquake shakes L’Aquila in Italy, with a maximum Mercalli intensity of XI (Extreme). Around 30,000 are killed.

January 17 – Russia defeats Ottoman Turkey at the Battle of Sarikamish

January 24 – The British Grand Fleet defeats the German High Seas Fleet at Dogger bank, sinking the armoured cruiser SMS Blücher.

January 25 – The first United States coast-to-coast long-distance telephone call is facilitated by a newly invented vacuum tube amplifier, is made by Alexander Graham Bell in New York City and Thomas Watson, in San Francisco

February 8 – The Birth of a Nation, directed by D. W. Griffith, premieres in Los Angeles. It will be the highest-grossing film for around 25 years.

March – The 1915 Palestine locust infestation breaks out in Palestine; it continues until October.

March 10 – In the first deliberately planned British offensive of the war, British Indian troops overrun German positions at Neuve Chapelle in France, but are unable to sustain the advance.

April 11 – Charlie Chaplin’s film The Tramp is released

April 22 – At the start of Second Battle of Ypres Germany makes its first large scale use of poison gas on the Western Front.

April 24 – The Armenian Genocide begins, with the deportation of Armenian notables from Istanbul.

April 25 – A landing at Anzac Cove is conducted by Australian and New Zealand Army Corps, and a landing at Cape Helles by British and French troops, to begin the Allied invasion of Turkey

April 26 – Italy secretly agrees to leave the Triple Alliance with Germany and Austria-Hungary, and join with the Triple Entente, in exchange for certain territories of Austria-Hungary on its borders.

May 5 – Forces of the Ottoman Empire begin shelling ANZAC Cove from a new position behind their lines.

May 7 – The British ocean liner RMS Lusitania is sunk by German U-boat U-20 off the south-west coast of Ireland, killing 1,198 civilians en route from New York to Liverpool.

May 9 – German and French forces fight to a standstill at The Second Battle of Artois, German forces defeat the British at the Battle of Aubers Ridge.

May 22 – Quintinshill rail disaster in Scotland – The collision and fire kill 226, mostly troops, the largest number of fatalities in a rail accident in the United Kingdom.

May 25 – China agrees to the Twenty-One Demands of the Japanese.These demands would greatly extend Japanese control of Manchuria and of the Chinese economy.

July 1 – German fighter pilot Kurt Wintgens becomes the first person to shoot down another plane, using a machine gun equipped with synchronization gear.

July 22 – The ‘Great Retreat’ is ordered on the Eastern Front, Russian forces pull back out of Poland (then part of Russia), taking machinery and equipment with them.

August 5 – Hurricane Two of the 1915 Atlantic hurricane season over Galveston and New Orleans leaves 275 dead.

August 8 – The Allies mount a diversionary attack timed to coincide with a major Allied landing of reinforcements at Suvla Bay.

September 6 – The prototype military tank is first tested by the British Army.

September 25 – British forces take the French town of Loos, but with substantial casualties, and are unable to press their advantage. This is the first time the British use poison gas in World War I.

October – Franz Kafka’s novella The Metamorphosis (Die Verwandlung) is first published in Germany.

October 15 – Austria-Hungary invades Serbia. Bulgaria enters the war, also invading Serbia. The Serbian First Army retreats towards Greece.

October 19 – The U.S. recognizes the de facto Mexican government of Venustiano Carranza

October 23 – The torpedoing of armored cruiser SMS Prinz Adalbert results in 672 deaths, the greatest single loss of life for the Imperial German Navy in the Baltic Sea during the war.

November 24 – William J. Simmons revives the American Civil War era Ku Klux Klan at Stone Mountain, Georgia.

November 25 – Albert Einstein presents part of his theory of general relativity to the Prussian Academy of Sciences.

December 12 – President of the Republic of China Yuan Shikai declares himself Emperor.

 

Elsewhere in 1914

January 1 – The St. Petersburg–Tampa Airboat Line in the United States starts services between St. Petersburg and Tampa, Florida, becoming the first airline to provide scheduled passenger services

January 9 – The Phi Beta Sigma fraternity is founded by African American students at Howard University, in Washington, D.C

February 2 – Charlie Chaplin makes his film début, in the comedy short Making a Living

March 10 – Suffragette Mary Richardson damages Velázquez’ painting Rokeby Venus in London’s National Gallery, with a meat chopper

March 16 – Henriette Caillaux, wife of French minister Joseph Caillaux, murders Gaston Calmette, editor of Le Figaro, fearing publication of letters showing she and Caillaux were romantically involved

April 4 – The Komagata Maru sails from India to Canada. Due to Canadian regulations designed to exclude Asian immigrants, the boat is forced to return to Calcutta with all its passengers

April 9 – A misunderstanding involving US Navy sailors in Mexico and army troops loyal to Mexican dictator Victoriano Huerta leads to a breakdown in diplomatic relations between the United States and Mexico

April 20 – The Colorado National Guard attacks a tent colony of 1,200 striking coal miners in Ludlow, Colorado, killing 24 people

April 21 – 2300 U.S. Navy sailors and Marines from the South Atlantic fleet land in the port city of Veracruz, Mexico, which they will occupy for over six months

June 12 – Ottoman Greeks in Phocaea are massacred by Turkish irregular troops

June 28 – Serbian nationalist Gavrilo Princip assassinates Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his wife, Duchess Sophie, in Sarajevo.

June 29 – Anti-Serb riots in Sarajevo and Zagreb break out

July 23 – Austria-Hungary presents Serbia with an unconditional ultimatum.

July 28 – Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia by telegram. Tsar Nicholas II of Russia orders a partial mobilisation against Austria-Hungary.

July 28 – British and French naval forces fail to prevent the ships of the Imperial German Navy Mediterranean Division from reaching the Dardanelles.

August 1 – Germany declares war on Russia, following Russia’s military mobilization in support of Serbia. Germany also begins mobilisation.

August 2 – German troops occupy Luxembourg

August 4 – German troops invade Belgium at 8.02 am. In London the King declares war on Germany for this violation of Belgian neutrality and to defend France

August 5 – The German Army overruns and defeats the Belgians at Liège with the first operational use of Big Bertha (a howitzer).

August 7 – France launches its first attack of the war, in an ultimately unsuccessful attempt to recover the province of Alsace from Germany, beginning the Battle of the Frontiers.

August 17 – The Battle of Tannenberg begins between German and Russian forces.

August 23 – In its first major action at the Battle of Mons, the British Expeditionary Force holds the German forces, but then begins a month-long fighting Great Retreat to the Marne.

August 24 – Serbian troops defeat the Austro-Hungarian army at the Battle of Cer, marking the first Entente victory of the War.

August 27 – At the Battle of Le Cateau, British, French and Belgian forces make a successful tactical retreat from the German advance.

August 28 – At Heligoland Bight British cruisers under Admiral Beatty sink three German cruisers.

August 30 – At The Battle of Tannenberg, The Russian Second Army is surrounded and defeated.

September 5 – The First Battle of the Marne begins when French 6th Army attacks German forces near to Paris. Over 2 million fight, and a quarter are killed or wounded

September 22 – German submarine U-9 torpedoes three British Royal Navy armoured cruisers, HMS Aboukir, Cressy and Hogue, with the death of more than 1,400 men, in the North Sea.

October 9 – Antwerp (Belgium) falls to German troops.

October 19 – The First Battle of Ypres begins.

October 31 – At The Battle of the Yser, the Belgian army halts the German advance, but with heavy losses

October 31 – The Battle of the Vistula River concludes in Russian victory over German and Austro-Hungarian forces around Warsaw.

November 5 – After the shelling of Russian Black Sea ports, Britain and France declare war on The Ottoman Empire

November 7 – The Japanese and British seize Jiaozhou Bay in China, the base of the German East Asia Squadron at Tsingtao.

December 2 – Austro-Hungarian forces occupy the Serbian capital of Belgrade.

December 19 – The Battle of Kolubara ends, resulting in a decisive Serbian victory over Austria-Hungary.

December 24 – An unofficial, temporary Christmas truce begins, between British and German soldiers on the Western Front.

Elsewhere in 1913

January 16 – Srinivasa Ramanujan, a 26-year-old student in Madras, India, sends a letter to English mathematician G. H. Hardy, which would lead to him becoming one of the most important mathematician in history.

January 23 – Ottoman Empire Navy Minister Nazim is assassinated, and Prime Minister Kamil overthrown in a coup in Turkey

February 2 – Grand Central Station opens in New York

February 13 – Mary Harris Jones, the 83-year-old labor activist remembered as Mother Jones, is arrested in Charleston, West Virginia after leading a group of miners to confront Governor William Glasscock.

February 20 – The first survey stake for what would become the city of Canberra, capital of Australia, is driven into the ground by King O’Malley, Minister for Home Affairs.

February 22 -Four days after their forced resignations, former Mexican President Madero, and Vice-President Pino Suarez, are shot to death after being transported from the presidential palace to a prison.

March 4 – Woodrow Wilson is inaugurated as U.S. President

March 13 – Film stuntman and daredevil Rodman Law, ‘The Human Bullet’, attempts to become the first passenger in a manned rocket flight. The rocket explodes on the launchpad, but Law is only slightly injured.

March 18 – King George of Greece is assassinated

March 24 – The 1,740-seat Palace Theatre opens at Broadway and West 47th in New York City. Stars for the first night include Cyril Chadwick, Mabel Berra, Stacia Napierkowska and film star Ed Wynn.

March 25 – Dayton, Ohio is devastated and 400 of its people are killed as the Ohio River overflows its banks following heavy rains.

March 26 – The Battle of Adrianople is won by Bulgarian troops under the command of General Savov, who capture the historic city that once served as the capital of the Ottoman Empire.

March 26 – The Mexican Revolution begins as Venustiano Carranza and starts a rebellion against Victoriano Huerta’s government.

April 3 – The 550 foot long German dirigible Z-4 strays into French territory, runs out of fuel, and is seized by the French Army

April 11 – Albert S. Burleson, the new Postmaster General of the United States, proposes the segregation of white and black federal employees in the postal service. By the end of the year, segregation has spread throughout the department.

April 24 – The Woolworth Building, tallest in the world until 1930, opens to the public

April 25 – Mary Phagan, 15-year old pencil factory employee, is murdered in Atlanta, Georgia.

May 26 – Igor Sikorsky introduces the first four-engine airplane, the Russky Vityaz bomber.

May 29 – Igor Stravinsky’s ballet The Rite of Spring is premièred at the Théâtre des Champs-Élysées in Paris – its modernism provokes one of the most famous classical music riots in history.

May 30 – Jules Goux wins the third Indianapolis 500

May 30 – The First Balkan War formally ends with the signing of the Treaty of London. The Ottoman Turks cede almost all of their European territories to the Balkan nations.

June 8 – Sufragette Emily Davison dies after being hit by King George V’s horse Anmer at the 1913 Derby after she walks onto the track during the race.

June 12 – Billed as ‘the longest wooden bridge in the world’, the 2.5 mile long Collins Bridge opens, turning the small town of Miami, Florida into a premier resort area.

June 18 – John Ernest Williamson, whose father had invented a transparent diving bell called the photosphere, becomes the first person to take photographs from beneath the ocean surface.

June 21 – Georgia Thompson ‘Tiny’ Broadwick becomes the first woman to parachute from an airplane.

July 4 – As the Second Balkan War continues, Greek and Serbian armies are successful in routing attacking Bulgarian troops, at Kılkış, which would later become part of Greek territory.

July 15 – Britain’s House of Lords votes against approval of the Irish Home Rule bill, and Prime Minister H. H. Asquith announces that his government will present a plan for abolition of the House of Lords.

July 22 – Fifty people, mostly women and girls, are killed in a fire at the Binghamton Clothing Company factory in Binghamton, New York.

August 2 – The first known ascent of Mount Olympus in Greece is made by Swiss mountaineers Daniel Baud-Bovy and Frédéric Boissonnas guided by Christos Kakkalos.

August 10 – The Treaty of Bucharest is signed at 10.30 a.m., ending the Second Balkan War.

August 23 – The famous statue of The Little Mermaid, sculpted by Edvard Eriksen, is unveiled in Copenhagen.

September 15 – The first successful 4-wheel drive vehicle, the Jeffrey Quad, is delivered to the U.S. Army

October 6 – Yuan Shihkai is elected President of China by the Chinese National Assembly. He will dissolve the legislature four weeks later, assume dictatorial powers, then proclaim himself the Emperor.

October 10 – Woodrow Wilson presses a telegraph key at his desk in the White House, sending the charge that ignites dynamite to destroy the Gamboa Dike, completing the Panama Canal.

October 14 – In the worst mining disaster in British history, 439 coal miners are killed in the explosion of the Universal Colliery at Senghenydd in Wales

October 16 – The Royal Navy launches its first oil-powered warship, The HMS Queen Elizabeth

October 17 – In the worst air disaster up to this date, the German zeppelin L-2 explodes in mid-air, 600 feet over the city of Johannisthal, killing all 28 passengers and crew on board

October 21 – Camel cigarettes are introduced by the R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company

November 9 – The ‘White Hurricane’ gale sinks 19 ships on Michigan’s Great Lakes, drowning hundreds

November 13 – British suffragette Emmeline Pankhurst deliveres her ‘Freedom or Death’ speech in Hartford, Connecticut.

November 14 – The first volume of Marcel Proust’s 3,200-page novel ‘À la recherche du temps perdu’ is published as ‘Du côté de chez Swann’

November 22 – In the Battle of Tierra Blanca, Pancho Villa’s force of 5,500 men engage 7,000 federal troops under command of José Inés Salazar.

December 1 – The Ford Motor Company introduces the first moving automobile assembly line, reducing chassis assembly time by 80 percent

December 12 – Menelik II, the Emperor of Ethiopia since 1889, dies at the age of 69

December 21 – The first crossword puzzle in history, Arthur Wynne’s ‘word-cross’, is published in the New York World

December 23 – The Federal Reserve Act is signed into law by Woodrow Wilson, creating the Federal Reserve System as the central banking system of the United States

Elsewhere in 1912

January 1 – The Republic of China is established as Dr. Sun Yat-Sen takes the oath of office as the Provisional President at Nanjing.

January 8 – The African National Congress is founded as the South African Native National Congress in a four-day meeting at Bloemfontein.

January 9 – The 130 foot tall Equitable Building, New York City’s first skyscraper, is destroyed by a fast moving fire.

January 12 – The Lawrence textile strike begins in Lawrence, Massachusetts. Men, women and children from 25 different nationalities hold out for nine weeks until March 13, when American Woolen agree to the strikers’ demands.

January 17 – The British Antarctic Expedition, consisting of Robert Falcon Scott and his team of four explorers, reach the South Pole, only to find the flag of Norway that had been planted by the Norwegian Expedition led by Roald Amundsen.

February 4 – Franz Reichelt, 32, French tailor and engineer, plunges to his death after jumping from the Eiffel Tower to test a wearable parachute.

February 12 – The Qing Dynasty of China comes to an end after 268 years as the Empress Dowager Longyu signs an agreement on behalf of Puyi, the 6 year old Emperor of China, making General Yuan Shih-kai the President of the new Republic.

March 1 – Albert Berry becomes the first person to make a parachute jump from an airplane in flight, leaping from above the Jefferson Barracks near St. Louis, Missouri.

March 1 – Emmeline Pankhurst is among 148 suffragettes arrested in London for breaking windows, including that of 10 Downing St

March 29 – The three remaining members of Robert Falcon Scott’s South Pole expedition die while waiting out a blizzard in their tent, still nearly 150 miles from their base camp. Their bodies will be discovered by a search party in November.

April 10 – RMS Titanic, the largest ship ever constructed, begins its maiden voyage from Southampton, England at noon, with a final destination of New York City.

April 14 – At 1140pm, RMS Titanic strikes an iceberg in the North Atlantic Ocean. The ship stas afloat for two hours and forty minutes. Only 705 of the people on board survive, while 1,500 die.

April 17 – Russian soldiers kill 270 striking gold miners and wound 270 others after firing into a crowd as they protested. The miners had gone on strike in Siberia to demand a reduction in the workday and improved food and sanitation.

May 14 – Frederik VIII, King of Denmark, collapses and dies while taking an evening stroll while on vacation in Germany. Found a

May 24 – Charles Dawson brings the first five skull fragments of the Piltdown man to the British Museum. Dawson’s ‘missing link’ will be proven to be a hoax in 1953.

May 29 – L’après-midi d’un faune, a ballet choreographed and performed by Vaslav Nijinsky, premiers at the Théâtre du Châtelet in Paris. Nijinsky shocks the audience and is booed offstage.

June 22 – At the Republican National Convention, U.S. President William Howard Taft is nominated for a second term ahead of former President Theodore Roosevelt, who leaves the convention and forms a new Progressive Party.

July 1 – The Woolworth Building in New York City becomes the world’s tallest skyscraper, at 792 feet.

July 2 – New Jersey Governor Woodrow Wilson receives the Democratic Party nomination for President of the United States.

July 4 – 41 are killed in a train collision near Corning, New York

July 6 – The 1912 Summer Olympics are formally opened at the Swedish national stadium in Stockholm. Twenty-eight nations and 2,407 athletes (including 48 women) participate.

July 7 – Harry Houdini escapes handcuffs, leg irons, and an underwater coffin

July 7 – The first Automat in New York City, providing fast food to customers in a self-service format, is opened by Horn and Hardart at 1557 Broadway in Times Square.

August 7 – Physicist Victor Hess of the Vienna Institute for Radium Research, in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, becomes the first person to discover cosmic rays.

August 8 – Cincinnatus Leconte, President of Haiti, and 300 soldiers are killed in an accidental explosion at the presidential palace in Port-au-Prince.

September 12 – French Prime Minister Raymond Poincaré signs an agreement with the Russian Empire, providing that if the German Empire mobilized its troops, France and Russia would do the same.

September 21 – Harry Houdini gives the first public performance of his escape from the Chinese Water Torture Cell. The trick, never done before by anyone, required Houdini to get out of a lock

September 28 – The ‘Ulster Covenant’, a protest by adult citizens of the province in northern Ireland against a proposal to give Ireland self-government apart from Great Britain, is signed by 237,368 men, and 234,046 women.

October 14 – Theodore Roosevelt is shot and wounded by John Schrank, a New York City saloonkeeper. The bullet is slowed by Roosevelt’s metal eyeglasses case and the folded, fifty-page manuscri

October 17 – The Ottoman Empire declares war on Bulgaria and Serbia.

October 18 – The Ottoman Empire and Italy sign the First Treaty of Lausanne to end the Italo-Turkish War, with Turkey agreeing to grant independence to Tripolitania and Cyrenaica long enough for them to come under Italian control.

October 30 – James S. Sherman, the Vice President of the United States, dies in office, six days before the presidential election.

November 5 – Woodrow Wilson is elected President of the United States, with former Presidents Roosevelt and incumbent President Taft finishing in second and third place, respectively.

November 28 – Albania declares independence from The Ottoman Empire, bringing an end to more than 400 years of Turkish rule.

November 29 – The University of Maryland is destroyed by fire

December 4 – African-American boxer Jack Johnson shocks much of America by marrying ‘outside his race’ to white American Lucille Cameron.

December 6 – In excavations at Tell al-Amarna in Egypt, the Nefertiti Bust is unearthed, intact, after a burial of 32 centuries.

December 8 – Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany convenes a war council at Potsdam, after receiving news that the United Kingdom would join with France and Russia in the event of a European war.

December 23 – The Viceroy of India, Lord Hardinge, is wounded when a bomb is thrown at him in Delhi. The mastermind behind the plot, Rashbehari Bose, escapes to Japan where he livs the rest of his life.

December 26 – Mexican revolutionary leader Pancho Villa is able to escape from the military prison of Santiago Tlatelolco, and flees to the United States, hiding in El Paso, Texas.

 

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