Elsewhere in 1920

Radicals Awaiting Deportation

January 2 – The first Red Scare in the United States – 4025 suspected communists and anarchists are arrested and held without trial in several cities

January 7 – In the Russian Civil War, the forces of Russian White Admiral Alexander Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk – the Great Siberian Ice March ensues

January 16 – Prohibition in the United States begins, with the Eighteenth Amendment to the Constitution coming into effect

February 2 – The Tartu Peace Treaty is signed, ending the Estonian War of Independence and recognizing the independence of both the Republic of Estonia and the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic

February 7 – Admiral Kolchak and Viktor Pepelyayev are executed by firing squad near Irkutsk

February 17 – A woman named Anna Anderson tries to commit suicide in Berlin, and is taken to a mental hospital, where she claims she is Grand Duchess Anastasia of Russia

February 24 – Adolf Hitler presents his National Socialist Program in Munich to the German Workers’ Party (Deutsche Arbeiterpartei), which renames itself as the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei)

March 7 – The Syrian National Congress proclaims Syria independent, with Faisal I of Iraq as king

March 10 – The world’s first peaceful establishment of a social democratic government takes place in Sweden, as Hjalmar Branting takes over as Prime Minister

March 13–17 – Wolfgang Kapp and Walther von Lüttwitz’s Kapp Putsch (an attempted coup in Germany) briefly ousts the Weimar Republic government from Berlin, but fails due to public resistance and a general strike

March 15 – The Ruhr Red Army, a communist army 60,000 men strong, is formed in Germany

March 15–16 – Constantinople is occupied by British Empire forces, acting for the Allied Powers against the Turkish National Movement

March 19 – The United States Senate refuses to ratify the Treaty of Versailles

March 25 – British recruits to the Royal Irish Constabulary begin to arrive in Ireland. They become known from their improvised uniforms as the ‘Black and Tans’

April 4 – Violence erupts between Arab and Jewish residents in Jerusalem – 9 are killed, 216 injured

April 20 – The 1920 Summer Olympics open in Antwerp, Belgium. The Olympic symbols of five interlocking rings and the associated flag are first displayed at the games

April 23 – The Grand National Assembly of Turkey is founded by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, in Ankara. It denounces the government of Sultan Mehmed VI, and announces a temporary constitution

May 2 – The first game of Negro National League baseball is played in Indianapolis

May 16 – Over 30,000 people attend the Canonization of Joan of Arc in Rome

May 20 – President Venustiano Carranza of Mexico arrives in San Antonio Tlaxcalantongo, where he is shot and killed by the troops of Rodolfo Herrero

June 4 – With the Treaty of Trianon, peace is restored between the Allied Powers and Hungary, which loses 72% of its territory

June 22 – In the Greek Summer Offensive, Greece attacks Turkish troops

July 19 – The Second Congress of the Communist International begins in Saint Petersburg and Moscow

July 24 – The French defeat the Syrian army at the Battle of Maysalun, occupy Damascus, and depose Faisal I of Syria as king

August 10 – Ottoman Sultan Mehmed VI’s representatives sign the Treaty of Sèvres with the Allied Powers, confirming arrangements for the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire

August 11 – Bolshevik Russia recognizes independent Latvia

August 19–25 – The Poles in Upper Silesia rise up against the Germans.

August 20 – The first commercial radio station in the United States, 8MK, begins operations in Detroit

August 26 – The Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution is passed, guaranteeing women’s suffrage

September 16 – A bomb in a horse wagon explodes in front of the J. P. Morgan building in New York City, killing 38 and injuring 400

October 9 – In the Polish–Lithuanian War, Polish troops take Vilnius

November 2 – In the US presidential election, Republican Warren G. Harding defeats Democrat James M. Cox and Socialist Eugene V. Debs

November 13 – The White Army’s last units and civilian refugees are evacuated from the Crimea on board 126 ships

November 15 – In Geneva, the first assembly of the League of Nations is held

November 21 – The Irish Republican Army shoot dead 14 British undercover agents in Dublin. Later that day in retaliation, the Royal Irish Constabulary open fire on a crowd at a Gaelic Football match, killing 14

December 1 – The Mexican Revolution ends with a new regime coming to power, which couples with the end of the Old West

December 11 – British forces set fire to 5 acres of the centre of Cork, Ireland, including the City Hall, in reprisal attacks, after a British auxiliary is killed in a guerilla ambush

December 16 – An 8.6 Richter scale Haiyuan earthquake causes a landslide in Gansu Province, China, killing 180,000

December 22 – The 8th Congress of Soviets of the Russian SFSR adopts the GOELRO plan, the major plan of the economical development of the country

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